• November 9, 2022

What Is Ipv4 And Ipv6 Addressing

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What’s the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6? – Guru99

What is IP?
An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the IP protocol for communication. An IP address acts as an identifier for a specific device on a particular network. The IP address is also called an IP number or Internet address.
IP address specifies the technical format of the addressing and packets scheme. Most networks combine IP with a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). It also allows developing a virtual connection between a destination and a source.
Now in this IPv4 and IPv6 difference tutorial, we will learn What is IPv4 and IPv6?
What is IPv4?
IPv4 is an IP version widely used to identify devices on a network using an addressing system. It was the first version of IP deployed for production in the ARPANET in 1983. It uses a 32-bit address scheme to store 2^32 addresses which is more than 4 billion addresses. It is considered the primary Internet Protocol and carries 94% of Internet traffic.
What is IPv6?
IPv6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol. This new IP address version is being deployed to fulfill the need for more Internet addresses. It was aimed to resolve issues that are associated with IPv4. With 128-bit address space, it allows 340 undecillion unique address space. IPv6 is also called IPng (Internet Protocol next generation).
Internet Engineer Taskforce initiated it in early 1994. The design and development of that suite are now called IPv6.
KEY DIFFERENCE
IPv4 is 32-Bit IP address whereas IPv6 is a 128-Bit IP address.
IPv4 is a numeric addressing method whereas IPv6 is an alphanumeric addressing method.
IPv4 binary bits are separated by a dot(. ) whereas IPv6 binary bits are separated by a colon(:).
IPv4 offers 12 header fields whereas IPv6 offers 8 header fields.
IPv4 supports broadcast whereas IPv6 doesn’t support broadcast.
IPv4 has checksum fields while IPv6 doesn’t have checksum fields
When we compare IPv4 and IPv6, IPv4 supports VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) whereas IPv6 doesn’t support VLSM.
IPv4 uses ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) to map to MAC address whereas IPv6 uses NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol) to map to MAC address.
Features of IPv4
Following are the features of IPv4:
Connectionless Protocol
Allow creating a simple virtual communication layer over diversified devices
It requires less memory, and ease of remembering addresses
Already supported protocol by millions of devices
Offers video libraries and conferences
Features of IPv6
Here are the features of IPv6:
Hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure
Stateful and Stateless configuration
Support for quality of service (QoS)
An ideal protocol for neighboring node interaction
IPv4 vs IPv6
Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses
IPv4 & IPv6 are both IP addresses that are binary numbers. Comparing IPv6 vs IPv4, IPv4 is 32 bit binary number while IPv6 is 128 bit binary number address. IPv4 address are separated by periods while IPv6 address are separated by colons.
Both are used to identify machines connected to a network. In principle, they are the same, but they are different in how they work. Below are the main differences between IPv4 and IPv6:
Basis for differences
IPv4
IPv6
Size of IP address
IPv4 is a 32-Bit IP Address.
IPv6 is 128 Bit IP Address.
Addressing method
IPv4 is a numeric address, and its binary bits are separated by a dot (. )
IPv6 is an alphanumeric address whose binary bits are separated by a colon (:). It also contains hexadecimal.
Number of header fields
12
8
Length of header filed
20
40
Checksum
Has checksum fields
Does not have checksum fields
Example
12. 244. 233. 165
2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:7879
Type of Addresses
Unicast, broadcast, and multicast.
Unicast, multicast, and anycast.
Number of classes
IPv4 offers five different classes of IP Address. Class A to E.
lPv6 allows storing an unlimited number of IP Address.
Configuration
You have to configure a newly installed system before it can communicate with other systems.
In IPv6, the configuration is optional, depending upon on functions needed.
VLSM support
IPv4 support VLSM (Variable Length Subnet mask).
IPv6 does not offer support for VLSM.
Fragmentation
Fragmentation is done by sending and forwarding routes.
Fragmentation is done by the sender.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
RIP is a routing protocol supported by the routed daemon.
RIP does not support IPv6. It uses static routes.
Network Configuration
Networks need to be configured either manually or with DHCP. IPv4 had several overlays to handle Internet growth, which require more maintenance efforts.
IPv6 support autoconfiguration capabilities.
Best feature
Widespread use of NAT (Network address translation) devices which allows single NAT address can mask thousands of
non-routable addresses, making end-to-end
integrity achievable.
It allows direct addressing because of vast address
Space.
Address Mask
Use for the designated network from host portion.
Not used.
SNMP
SNMP is a protocol used for system management.
SNMP does not support IPv6.
Mobility & Interoperability
Relatively constrained network topologies to which move restrict mobility and interoperability capabilities.
IPv6 provides interoperability and mobility
capabilities which are embedded in network devices.
Security
Security is dependent on applications – IPv4 was not designed with security in mind.
IPSec(Internet Protocol Security) is built into the IPv6 protocol, usable with
a proper key infrastructure.
Packet size
Packet size 576 bytes required, fragmentation optional
1208 bytes required without fragmentation
Packet fragmentation
Allows from routers and sending host
Sending hosts only
Packet header
Does not identify packet flow for QoS handling which includes checksum options.
Packet head contains Flow Label field that specifies packet flow for QoS handling
DNS records
Address (A) records, maps hostnames
Address (AAAA) records, maps hostnames
Address configuration
Manual or via DHCP
Stateless address autoconfiguration using Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) or DHCPv6
IP to MAC resolution
Broadcast ARP
Multicast Neighbour Solicitation
Local subnet Group management
Internet Group Management Protocol GMP)
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
Optional Fields
Has Optional Fields
Does not have optional fields. But Extension headers are available.
IPSec
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) concerning network security is optional
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Concerning network security is mandatory
Dynamic host configuration Server
Clients have approach DHCS (Dynamic Host Configuration server) whenever they want to connect to a network.
A Client does not have to approach any such server as they are given permanent addresses.
Mapping
Uses ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) to map to MAC address
Uses NDP(Neighbour Discovery Protocol) to map to MAC address
Combability with mobile devices
IPv4 address uses the dot-decimal notation. That’s why it is not suitable for mobile networks.
IPv6 address is represented in hexadecimal, colon- separated notation.
IPv6 is better suited to mobile
networks.
IPv4 and IPv6 cannot communicate with other but can exist together on the same network. This is known as Dual Stack.
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What is IP?
An IP stands for internet protocol. An IP address is assigned to each device connected to a network. Each device uses an IP address for communication. It also behaves as an identifier as this address is used to identify the device on a network. It defines the technical format of the packets. Mainly, both the networks, i. e., IP and TCP, are combined together, so together, they are referred to as a TCP/IP. It creates a virtual connection between the source and the destination.
We can also define an IP address as a numeric address assigned to each device on a network. An IP address is assigned to each device so that the device on a network can be identified uniquely. To facilitate the routing of packets, TCP/IP protocol uses a 32-bit logical address known as IPv4(Internet Protocol version 4).
An IP address consists of two parts, i. e., the first one is a network address, and the other one is a host address.
There are two types of IP addresses:
IPv4
IPv6
What is IPv4?
IPv4 is a version 4 of IP. It is a current version and the most commonly used IP address. It is a 32-bit address written in four numbers separated by ‘dot’, i. e., periods. This address is unique for each device.
For example, 66. 94. 29. 13
The above example represents the IP address in which each group of numbers separated by periods is called an Octet. Each number in an octet is in the range from 0-255. This address can produce 4, 294, 967, 296 possible unique addresses.
In today’s computer network world, computers do not understand the IP addresses in the standard numeric format as the computers understand the numbers in binary form only. The binary number can be either 1 or 0. The IPv4 consists of four sets, and these sets represent the octet. The bits in each octet represent a number.
Each bit in an octet can be either 1 or 0. If the bit the 1, then the number it represents will count, and if the bit is 0, then the number it represents does not count.
Representation of 8 Bit Octet
The above representation shows the structure of 8- bit octet.
Now, we will see how to obtain the binary representation of the above IP address, i. e., 66. 13
Step 1: First, we find the binary number of 66.
To obtain 66, we put 1 under 64 and 2 as the sum of 64 and 2 is equal to 66 (64+2=66), and the remaining bits will be zero, as shown above. Therefore, the binary bit version of 66 is 01000010.
Step 2: Now, we calculate the binary number of 94.
To obtain 94, we put 1 under 64, 16, 8, 4, and 2 as the sum of these numbers is equal to 94, and the remaining bits will be zero. Therefore, the binary bit version of 94 is 01011110.
Step 3: The next number is 29.
To obtain 29, we put 1 under 16, 8, 4, and 1 as the sum of these numbers is equal to 29, and the remaining bits will be zero. Therefore, the binary bit version of 29 is 00011101.
Step 4: The last number is 13.
To obtain 13, we put 1 under 8, 4, and 1 as the sum of these numbers is equal to 13, and the remaining bits will be zero. Therefore, the binary bit version of 13 is 00001101.
Drawback of IPv4
Currently, the population of the world is 7. 6 billion. Every user is having more than one device connected with the internet, and private companies also rely on the internet. As we know that IPv4 produces 4 billion addresses, which are not enough for each device connected to the internet on a planet. Although the various techniques were invented, such as variable- length mask, network address translation, port address translation, classes, inter-domain translation, to conserve the bandwidth of IP address and slow down the depletion of an IP address. In these techniques, public IP is converted into a private IP due to which the user having public IP can also use the internet. But still, this was not so efficient, so it gave rise to the development of the next generation of IP addresses, i. e., IPv6.
What is IPv6?
IPv4 produces 4 billion addresses, and the developers think that these addresses are enough, but they were wrong. IPv6 is the next generation of IP addresses. The main difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is the address size of IP addresses. The IPv4 is a 32-bit address, whereas IPv6 is a 128-bit hexadecimal address. IPv6 provides a large address space, and it contains a simple header as compared to IPv4.
It provides transition strategies that convert IPv4 into IPv6, and these strategies are as follows:
Dual stacking: It allows us to have both the versions, i. e., IPv4 and IPv6, on the same device.
Tunneling: In this approach, all the users have IPv6 communicates with an IPv4 network to reach IPv6.
Network Address Translation: The translation allows the communication between the hosts having a different version of IP.
This hexadecimal address contains both numbers and alphabets. Due to the usage of both the numbers and alphabets, IPv6 is capable of producing over 340 undecillion (3. 4*1038) addresses.
IPv6 is a 128-bit hexadecimal address made up of 8 sets of 16 bits each, and these 8 sets are separated by a colon. In IPv6, each hexadecimal character represents 4 bits. So, we need to convert 4 bits to a hexadecimal number at a time
Address format
The address format of IPv4:
The address format of IPv6:
The above diagram shows the address format of IPv4 and IPv6. An IPv4 is a 32-bit decimal address. It contains 4 octets or fields separated by ‘dot’, and each field is 8-bit in size. The number that each field contains should be in the range of 0-255. Whereas an IPv6 is a 128-bit hexadecimal address. It contains 8 fields separated by a colon, and each field is 16-bit in size.
Differences between IPv4 and IPv6
Ipv4
Ipv6
Address length
IPv4 is a 32-bit address.
IPv6 is a 128-bit address.
Fields
IPv4 is a numeric address that consists of 4 fields which are separated by dot (. ).
IPv6 is an alphanumeric address that consists of 8 fields, which are separated by colon.
Classes
IPv4 has 5 different classes of IP address that includes Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E.
IPv6 does not contain classes of IP addresses.
Number of IP address
IPv4 has a limited number of IP addresses.
IPv6 has a large number of IP addresses.
VLSM
It supports VLSM (Virtual Length Subnet Mask). Here, VLSM means that Ipv4 converts IP addresses into a subnet of different sizes.
It does not support VLSM.
Address configuration
It supports manual and DHCP configuration.
It supports manual, DHCP, auto-configuration, and renumbering.
Address space
It generates 4 billion unique addresses
It generates 340 undecillion unique addresses.
End-to-end connection integrity
In IPv4, end-to-end connection integrity is unachievable.
In the case of IPv6, end-to-end connection integrity is achievable.
Security features
In IPv4, security depends on the application. This IP address is not developed in keeping the security feature in mind.
In IPv6, IPSEC is developed for security purposes.
Address representation
In IPv4, the IP address is represented in decimal.
In IPv6, the representation of the IP address in hexadecimal.
Fragmentation
Fragmentation is done by the senders and the forwarding routers.
Fragmentation is done by the senders only.
Packet flow identification
It does not provide any mechanism for packet flow identification.
It uses flow label field in the header for the packet flow identification.
Checksum field
The checksum field is available in IPv4.
The checksum field is not available in IPv6.
Transmission scheme
IPv4 is broadcasting.
On the other hand, IPv6 is multicasting, which provides efficient network operations.
Encryption and Authentication
It does not provide encryption and authentication.
It provides encryption and authentication.
Number of octets
It consists of 4 octets.
It consists of 8 fields, and each field contains 2 octets. Therefore, the total number of octets in IPv6 is 16.
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Designing an IPv4 Addressing Scheme

Designing an IPv4 Addressing Scheme

Designing an IPv4 Addressing Scheme
This section gives an overview IPv4 addressing to aid you in designing an
IPv4 addressing plan. For information on IPv6 addresses, see IPv6 Addressing Overview. For information on
DHCP addresses, see Chapter 12, About DHCP (Overview).
Each IPv4-based network must have the following:
A unique network number that is assigned by either an ISP, an IR, or, for older networks, registered by the IANA. If you plan to use private addresses, the network numbers you devise must be unique within your organization.
Unique IPv4 addresses for the interfaces of every system on the network.
A network mask.
The IPv4 address is a 32-bit number that uniquely identifies a network interface
on a system, as explained in How IP Addresses Apply to Network Interfaces. An IPv4 address is written in
decimal digits, divided into four 8-bit fields that are separated by periods. Each
8-bit field represents a byte of the IPv4 address. This form of
representing the bytes of an IPv4 address is often referred to as the
dotted-decimal format.
The following figure shows the component parts of an IPv4 address, 2-1 IPv4 Address Format172. 16
Registered IPv4 network number. In class-based IPv4 notation, this number also defines the IP network class, Class B in this example, that would have been registered by the IANA.
50. 56
Host part of the IPv4 address. The host part uniquely identifies an interface on a system on a network. Note that for each interface on a local network, the network part of the address is the same, but the host part must be different.
If you plan to subnet a class-based IPv4 network, you need to
define a subnet mask, or netmask, as explained in netmasks Database.
The next example shows of the CIDR format address 192. 168. 3. 56/22Figure 2-2 CIDR Format IPv4 Address192. 3
Network part, which consists of the IPv4 network number that is received from an ISP or IR.
56
Host part, which you assign to an interface on a system.
/22
Network prefix, which defines how many bits of the address comprise the network number. The network prefix also provides the subnet mask for the IP address. Network prefixes are also assigned by the ISP or IR.
An Oracle Solaris-based network can combine standard IPv4 addresses, CIDR format IPv4 addresses,
DHCP addresses, IPv6 addresses, and private IPv4 addresses.
Designing Your IPv4 Addressing Scheme
This section describes the classes into which standard IPv4 address are organized. Though
the IANA no longer gives out class-based network numbers, these network numbers are
still in use on many networks. You might need to administer the address
space for a site with class-based network numbers. For a complete discussion of
IPv4 network classes, refer to Network Classes.
The following table shows the division of the standard IPv4 address into network
and host address spaces. For each class, “Range” specifies the range of decimal
values for the first byte of the network number. “Network Address” indicates the
number of bytes of the IPv4 address that are dedicated to the network
part of the address. Each byte is represented by xxx. “Host Address”
indicates the number of bytes that are dedicated to the host part of
the address. For example, in a class A network address, the first byte
is dedicated to the network, and the last three bytes are dedicated to
the host. The opposite designation is true for a class C 2-1 Division of the IPv4 Classes
Class
Byte Range
Network
Number
Host Address
A
0–127
xxx
B
128–191
C
192–223
The numbers in the first byte of the IPv4 address define whether the
network is class A, B, or C. The remaining three bytes have
a range from 0–255. The two numbers 0 and 255 are reserved. You
can assign the numbers 1–254 to each byte, depending on the network class
that was assigned to your network by the IANA.
The following table shows which bytes of the IPv4 address are assigned to
you. The table also shows the range of numbers within each byte that
are available for you to assign to your 2-2 Range of Available IPv4 Classes
Network Class
Byte 1 Range
Byte 2
Range
Byte 3 Range
Byte 4 Range
1–254
Preassigned by IANA
Preassigned
by IANA
IPv4 Subnet Number
Local networks with large numbers of hosts are sometimes divided into subnets. If
you divide your IPv4 network number into subnets, you need to assign a
network identifier to each subnet. You can maximize the efficiency of the IPv4
address space by using some of the bits from the host part of
the IPv4 address as a network identifier. When used as a network identifier,
the specified part of the address becomes the subnet number. You create a
subnet number by using a netmask, which is a bitmask that selects the
network and subnet parts of an IPv4 address. Refer to Creating the Network Mask for IPv4 Addresses for details.
Designing Your CIDR IPv4 Addressing Scheme
The network classes that originally constituted IPv4 are no longer in use on
the global Internet. Today, the IANA distributes classless CIDR format addresses to its
registries around the world. Any IPv4 address that you obtain from an ISP
is in CIDR format, as shown in Figure 2-2.
The network prefix of the CIDR address indicates how many IPv4 addresses are
available for hosts on your network. Note that these host addresses are assigned
to interfaces on a host. If a host has more than one physical
interface, you need to assign a host address for every physical interface that
is in use.
The network prefix of a CIDR address also defines the length of
the subnet mask. Most Oracle Solaris commands recognize the CIDR prefix designation of a
network’s subnet mask. However, the Oracle Solaris installation program and /etc/netmask file require you
to set the subnet mask by using dotted decimal representation. In these two
cases, use the dotted decimal representation of the CIDR network prefix, as shown
in the next 2-3 CIDR Prefixes and Their Decimal Equivalent
CIDR Network Prefix
Available IP Addresses
Dotted Decimal Subnet Equivalent
/19
8, 192
255. 255. 224. 0
/20
4, 096
255. 240. 0
/21
2, 048
255. 248. 0
1024
255. 252. 0
/23
512
255. 254. 0
/24
256
255. 0
/25
128
255. 128
/26
64
255. 192
/27
32
255. 224
For more information on CIDR addresses, refer to the following sources:
For technical details on CIDR, refer to RFC 1519, Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy.
More general information about CIDR is available from Pacific Bell Internet at Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Overview.
Another CIDR overview can be found in the Wikipedia article, “Classless inter-domain routing”.
Using Private IPv4 Addresses
The IANA has reserved three blocks of IPv4 addresses for companies to use
on their private networks. These addresses are defined in RFC 1918, Address Allocation for Private Internets. You can
use these private addresses, also known as 1918 addresses, for systems on local networks
within a corporate intranet. However, private addresses are not valid on the Internet.
Do not use them on systems that must communicate outside the local network.
The following table lists the private IPv4 address ranges and their corresponding netmasks.
IPv4
Address Range
netmask
10. 0. 0 – 10. 255
10. 0
172. 16. 0 – 172. 31. 255
172. 0
192. 0 – 192. 255
192. 0
How IP Addresses Apply to Network Interfaces
To connect to the network, a system must have at least one physical network interface. Each
network interface must have its own unique IP address. During Oracle Solaris
installation, you must supply the IP address for the first interface that the
installation program finds. Usually that interface has the name device-name0, for example eri0 or
hme0. This interface is considered the primary network interface.
If you add a second network interface to a host, that interface
also must have its own unique IP address. When you add the second
network interface, the host then becomes multihomed. By contrast, when you add a second
network interface to a host and enable IP forwarding, that host becomes a
router. See Configuring an IPv4 Router for an explanation.
Each network interface has a device name, a device driver, and an
associated device file in the /devices directory. The network interface might have a device
name such as eri or smc0, which are device names for two commonly
used Ethernet interfaces.
For information and tasks related to interfaces, refer to Chapter 6, Administering Network Interfaces (Tasks).
Note – This book assumes that your systems have Ethernet network interfaces. If you plan
to use different network media, refer to the manuals that come with the
network interface for configuration information.

Frequently Asked Questions about what is ipv4 and ipv6 addressing

What is IPv4 address and IPv6 address?

IPv4 is a 32-bit address. IPv6 is a 128-bit address. Fields. IPv4 is a numeric address that consists of 4 fields which are separated by dot (.). IPv6 is an alphanumeric address that consists of 8 fields, which are separated by colon.

What is IPv4 addressing?

The IPv4 address is a 32-bit number that uniquely identifies a network interface on a system, as explained in How IP Addresses Apply to Network Interfaces. An IPv4 address is written in decimal digits, divided into four 8-bit fields that are separated by periods. Each 8-bit field represents a byte of the IPv4 address.

What is difference between IPv4 and IPv6 address explain with examples?

IPv4 and IPv6 are internet protocol version 4 and internet protocol version 6, IP version 6 is the new version of Internet Protocol, which is way better than IP version 4 in terms of complexity and efficiency….Differences between IPv4 and IPv6.IPv4IPv6IPv4 has a 32-bit address lengthIPv6 has a 128-bit address length11 more rows•Oct 20, 2021

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