• March 3, 2024

Python Requests_Request

Python Requests

Python Requests

Release v2. 26. 0. (Installation)
Requests is an elegant and simple HTTP library for Python, built for human beings.
Behold, the power of Requests:
>>> r = (”, auth=(‘user’, ‘pass’))
>>> atus_code
>>> r. headers[‘content-type’]
‘application/json; charset=utf8’
>>> r. encoding
‘{“type”:”User”… ‘
>>> ()
{‘private_gists’: 419, ‘total_private_repos’: 77,… }
See similar code, sans Requests.
Requests allows you to send HTTP/1. 1 requests extremely easily.
There’s no need to manually add query strings to your
URLs, or to form-encode your POST data. Keep-alive and HTTP connection pooling
are 100% automatic, thanks to urllib3.
Beloved Features¶
Requests is ready for today’s web.
Keep-Alive & Connection Pooling
International Domains and URLs
Sessions with Cookie Persistence
Browser-style SSL Verification
Automatic Content Decoding
Basic/Digest Authentication
Elegant Key/Value Cookies
Automatic Decompression
Unicode Response Bodies
HTTP(S) Proxy Support
Multipart File Uploads
Streaming Downloads
Connection Timeouts
Chunked Requests
Requests officially supports Python 2. 7 & 3. 6+, and runs great on PyPy.
The User Guide¶
This part of the documentation, which is mostly prose, begins with some
background information about Requests, then focuses on step-by-step
instructions for getting the most out of Requests.
Installation of Requests
$ python -m pip install requests
Get the Source Code
Make a Request
Passing Parameters In URLs
Response Content
Binary Response Content
JSON Response Content
Raw Response Content
Custom Headers
More complicated POST requests
POST a Multipart-Encoded File
Response Status Codes
Response Headers
Redirection and History
Errors and Exceptions
Advanced Usage
Session Objects
Request and Response Objects
Prepared Requests
SSL Cert Verification
Client Side Certificates
CA Certificates
Body Content Workflow
Streaming Uploads
Chunk-Encoded Requests
POST Multiple Multipart-Encoded Files
Event Hooks
Custom Authentication
Streaming Requests
HTTP Verbs
Custom Verbs
Link Headers
Transport Adapters
Blocking Or Non-Blocking?
Header Ordering
Basic Authentication
Digest Authentication
OAuth 1 Authentication
OAuth 2 and OpenID Connect Authentication
Other Authentication
New Forms of Authentication
The API Documentation / Guide¶
If you are looking for information on a specific function, class, or method,
this part of the documentation is for you.
Developer Interface
Main Interface
Request Sessions
Lower-Level Classes
Lower-Lower-Level Classes
Status Code Lookup
Migrating to 1. x
Migrating to 2. x
The Contributor Guide¶
If you want to contribute to the project, this part of the documentation is for
Contributor’s Guide
Be Cordial
Get Early Feedback
Contribution Suitability
Code Contributions
Steps for Submitting Code
Code Review
New Contributors
Kenneth Reitz’s Code Style™
Documentation Contributions
Bug Reports
Feature Requests
Keepers of the Crystals
Previous Keepers of Crystals
Patches and Suggestions
There are no more guides. You are now guideless.
Good luck.
How to Use the Python Requests Module With REST APIs

How to Use the Python Requests Module With REST APIs

Learn how to use the Python Requests module to interact with any REST API in the world.
Ben Lloyd Pearson | June 11, 2020
The clear, simple syntax of Python makes it an ideal language to interact with REST APIs, and in typical Python fashion, there’s a library made specifically to provide that functionality:. Python Requests is a powerful tool that provides the simple elegance of Python to make HTTP requests to any API in the world. At Nylas, we built our REST APIs for email, calendar, and contacts on Python, and we process over 500 million API requests a day, so naturally, we depend a ton on the Python Requests library.
In this guide, we’ll take a comprehensive look at making HTTP requests with Python Requests and learn how to use this functionality to integrate with REST a PDF of this article? Share it with a friend or save it for later reading.
The roles of HTTP, APIs, and REST
How to use Python Requests with REST APIs
How to authenticate to a REST API
How to handle HTTP errors with Python Requests
How to make robust API Requests
The Roles of HTTP, APIs, and REST
An Application Programming Interface (API) is a web service that grants access to specific data and methods that other applications can access – and sometimes edit – via standard HTTP protocols, just like a website. This simplicity makes it easy to quickly integrate APIs into a wide variety of applications. REpresentational State Transfer (REST), is probably the most popular architectural style of APIs for web services. It consists of a set of guidelines designed to simplify client / server communication. REST APIs make data access much more straightforward and logical.
The Request
When you want to interact with data via a REST API, this is called a request. A request is made up of the following components:
Endpoint – The URL that delineates what data you are interacting with. Similar to how a web page URL is tied to a specific page, an endpoint URL is tied to a specific resource within an API.
Method – Specifies how you’re interacting with the resource located at the provided endpoint. REST APIs can provide methods to enable full Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) functionality. Here are common methods most REST APIs provide:
GET – Retrieve data
PUT – Replace data
POST – Create data
DELETE – Delete data
Data – If you’re using a method that involves changing data in a REST API, you’ll need to include a data payload with the request that includes all data that will be created or modified.
Headers – Contain any metadata that needs to be included with the request, such as authentication tokens, the content type that should be returned, and any caching policies.
The Response
When you perform a request, you’ll get a response from the API. Just like in the request, it’ll have a response header and response data, if applicable. The response header consists of useful metadata about the response, while the response data returns what you actually requested. This can be any sort of data, as it’s really dependent on the API. The text is usually returned as JSON, but other markdown languages like XML are also possible.
Let’s look at a simple example of a request and a response. In the terminal, we’ll use curl to make a GET request to the Open Notify API. This is a simple, yet nifty API that has information about astronauts that are currently in space:
curl -X GET ”
You should see a response in JSON format that lists data about these astronauts, at the time of this article there are three people on a historic trip to the International Space Station:
“number”: 3,
“message”: “success”,
“people”: [
“craft”: “ISS”,
“name”: “Chris Cassidy”},
“name”: “Anatoly Ivanishin”},
“name”: “Ivan Vagner”}]}
How to Use Python Requests with REST APIs
Now, let’s take a look at what it takes to integrate with a REST API using Python Requests. First, you’ll need to have the necessary software; make sure you have Python and pip installed on your machine. Then, head over to the command line and install the python requests module with pip:
pip install requests
Now you’re ready to start using Python Requests to interact with a REST API, make sure you import the Requests library into any scripts you want to use it in:
import requests
How Request Data With GET
The GET method is used to access data for a specific resource from a REST API; Python Requests includes a function to do exactly this.
response = (“)
>>>> Response<200>
The response object contains all the data sent from the server in response to your GET request, including headers and the data payload. When this code example prints the response object to the console it simply returns the name of the object’s class and the status code the request returned (more on status codes later).
While this information might be useful, you’re most likely interested in the content of the request itself, which can be accessed in a few ways:
ntent() # Return the raw bytes of the data payload
() # Return a string representation of the data payload
() # This method is convenient when the API returns JSON
How to Use Query Parameters
Queries can be used to filter the data that an API returns, and these are added as query parameters that are appended to the endpoint URL. With Python Requests, this is handled via the params argument, which accepts a dictionary object; let’s see what that looks like when we use the Open Notify API to GET an estimate for when the ISS will fly over a specified point:
query = {‘lat’:’45’, ‘lon’:’180′}
response = (”, params=query)
The print command would return something that looks like this:
‘message’: ‘success’,
‘request’: {
‘altitude’: 100,
‘datetime’: 1590607799,
‘latitude’: 45. 0,
‘longitude’: 180. 0,
‘passes’: 5},
‘response’: [
{‘duration’: 307, ‘risetime’: 1590632341},
{‘duration’: 627, ‘risetime’: 1590637934},
{‘duration’: 649, ‘risetime’: 1590643725},
{‘duration’: 624, ‘risetime’: 1590649575},
{‘duration’: 643, ‘risetime’: 1590655408}]}
How to Create and Modify Data With POST and PUT
In a similar manner as the query parameters, you can use the data argument to add the associated data for PUT and POST method requests.
# Create a new resource
response = (”, data = {‘key’:’value’})
# Update an existing resource
(”, data = {‘key’:’value’})
How to Access REST Headers
You can also retrieve metadata from the response via headers. For example, to view the date of the response, just specify that with the `headers` property:
print(response. headers[“date”])
>>>> ‘Wed, 11 June 2020 19:32:24 GMT’
For open APIs, that covers the basics. However, many APIs can’t be used by just anyone. For those, let’s go over how to authenticate to REST APIs.
How to Authenticate to a REST API
So far you’ve seen how to interact with open REST APIs that don’t require any authorization. However, many REST APIs require you to authenticate to them before you can access specific endpoints, particularly if they deal with sensitive data.
There are a few common authentication methods for REST APIs that can be handled with Python Requests. The simplest way is to pass your username and password to the appropriate endpoint as HTTP Basic Auth; this is equivalent to typing your username and password into a website.
auth=HTTPBasicAuth(‘username’, ‘password’))
A more secure method is to get an access token that acts as an equivalent to a username/password combination; the method to get an access token varies widely from API to API, but the most common framework for API authentication is OAuth. Here at Nylas, we use three-legged OAuth to grant an access token for user accounts that is restricted to scopes that define the specific data and functionality that can be accessed. This process is demonstrated in the Nylas Hosted Auth service.
Once you have an access token, you can provide it as a bearer token in the request header: this is the most secure way to authenticate to a REST API with an access token:
my_headers = {‘Authorization’: ‘Bearer {access_token}’}
response = (”, headers=my_headers)
There are quite a few other methods to authenticate to a REST API, including digest, Kerberos, NTLM, and AuthBase. The use of these depends on the architecture decisions of the REST API producer.
Use Sessions to Manage Access Tokens
Session objects come in handy when working with Python Requests as a tool to persist parameters that are needed for making multiple requests within a single session, like access tokens. Also, managing session cookies can provide a nice performance increase because you don’t need to open a new connection for every request.
session = ssion()
({‘Authorization’: ‘Bearer {access_token}’})
response = (”)
How to Handle HTTP Errors With Python Requests
API calls don’t always go as planned, and there’s a multitude of reasons why API requests might fail that could be the fault of either the server or the client. If you’re going to use a REST API, you need to understand how to handle the errors they output when things go wrong to make your code more robust. This section covers everything you need to know about handling HTTP errors with Python Requests.
The Basics of HTTP Status Codes
Before we dive into the specifics of Python Requests, we first need to take a step back and understand what HTTP status codes are and how they relate to errors you might encounter.
All status codes fall into one of five categories.
1xx Informational – Indicates that a request has been received and that the client should continue to make the requests for the data payload. You likely won’t need to worry about these status codes while working with Python Requests.
2xx Successful – Indicates that a requested action has been received, understood, and accepted. You can use these codes to verify the existence of data before attempting to act on it.
3xx Redirection – Indicates that the client must make an additional action to complete the request like accessing the resource via a proxy or a different endpoint. You may need to make additional requests, or modify your requests to deal with these codes.
4xx Client Error – Indicates problems with the client, such as a lack of authorization, forbidden access, disallowed methods, or attempts to access nonexistent resources. This usually indicates configuration errors on the client application.
5xx Server Error – Indicates problems with the server that provides the API. There are a large variety of server errors and they often require the API provider to resolve.
How to Check for HTTP Errors With Python Requests
The response objects has a status_code attribute that can be used to check for any errors the API might have reported. The next example shows how to use this attribute to check for successful and 404 not found HTTP status codes, and you can use this same format for all HTTP status codes.
if (atus_code == 200):
print(“The request was a success! “)
# Code here will only run if the request is successful
elif (atus_code == 404:
print(“Result not found! “)
# Code here will react to failed requests
To see this in action, try removing the last letter from the URL endpoint, the API should return a 404 status code.
If you want requests to raise an exception for all error codes (4xx and 5xx), you can use the raise_for_status() function and catch specific errors using Requests built-in exceptions. This next example accomplishes the same thing as the previous code example.
response. raise_for_status()
# Additional code will only run if the request is successful
except TPError as error:
# This code will run if there is a 404 error.
Something that is often indicated by 3xx HTTP status codes is the requirement to redirect to a different location for the resource you’re requesting. This can sometimes result in a situation where you end up with an infinite redirect loop. The Python Requests module has the TooManyRedirects error that you can use to handle this problem. To resolve this problem, it’s likely the URL you’re using to access the resource is wrong and needs to be changed.
except oManyRedirects as error:
You can optionally use the request options to set the maximum number of redirects:
response = (”, max_redirects=2)
Or disable redirecting completely within your request options:
response = (”, allow_redirects=False)
So far, we’ve only looked at errors that come from an active server. What happens if you don’t receive a response from the server at all? Connection errors can occur for many different reasons, including a DNS failure, refused connection, internet connectivity issues or latency somewhere in the network. Python Requests offers the ConnectionError exception that indicates when your client is unable to connect to the server.
except nnectionError as error:
This type of error might be temporary, or permanent. In the former scenario, you should retry the request again to see if there is a different result. In the latter scenario, you should make sure you’re able to deal with a prolonged inability to access data from the API, and it might require you to investigate your own connectivity issues.
Timeout errors occur when you’re able to connect to the API server, but it doesn’t complete the request within the allotted amount of time. Similar to the other errors we’ve looked at, Python Requests can handle this error with a Timeout exception:
response = (”, timeout=0. 00001)
except requests. Timeout as error:
In this example, the timeout was set as a fraction of a second via the request options. Most APIs are unable to respond this quickly, so the code will produce a timeout exception. You can avoid this error by setting longer timeouts for your script, optimizing your requests to be smaller, or setting up a retry loop for the request. This can also sometimes indicate a problem with the API provider. One final solution is to incorporate asynchronous API calls to prevent your code from stopping while it waits for larger responses.
How to Make Robust API Requests
As we’ve seen, the Requests module elegantly handles common API request errors by utilizing exception handling in Python. If we put all of the errors we’ve talked about together, we have a rather seamless way to handle any HTTP request error that comes our way:
response = (”, timeout=5)
except TPError as errh:
except nnectionError as errc:
except requests. exceptions. Timeout as errt:
except questException as err:
If you’ve made it this far, congrats! You’re well on your way to becoming a Python Requests wizard for whom no REST API is too great a match. Want to keep learning? We have tons of knowledgable Python experts here at Nylas, and we have in-depth content on our blog about packaging and deploying Python code to production, and using environment variables to make your Python code more secure.
Ben Lloyd Pearson
Ben is the Developer Advocate for Nylas. He is a triathlete, musician, avid gamer, and loves to seek out the best breakfast tacos in Austin, Texas.
Python Examples of requests.request - ProgramCreek.com

Python Examples of requests.request – ProgramCreek.com

The following are 30
code examples for showing how to use quest().
These examples are extracted from open source projects.
You can vote up the ones you like or vote down the ones you don’t like,
and go to the original project or source file by following the links above each may check out the related API usage on the may also want to check out all available functions/classes of the module
requests, or try the search function. Example 1def get_block_number(block_num, endpoint, get_tx_info=False):
url = endpoint
payload = ({
“jsonrpc”: “2. 0”,
“method”: “hmy_getBlockByNumber”,
“params”: [
“id”: 1})
headers = {
‘Content-Type’: ‘application/json’}
response = quest(‘POST’, url, headers=headers, data=payload, allow_redirects=False, timeout=30)
returned = (ntent)[“result”]
return returned
except Exception: # Catch all to not halt
‘block-num’: block_num,
‘reason’: f”Failed to json load block {block_num}. Content: {ntent}”})
print(f”n[!!! ] Failed to json load block {block_num}. Content: {ntent}n”) Example 2def __init__(self, id=0, user=None, key=None, timeout=None):
Initialize the base class.
You can provide `id` that is the item id used for url creation. You can also
provide `user`, that is the username for login.
You can also provide `key`, that is the userkey needed to
authenticate with the user, you can find it in the
[account info]() under account identifier.,
the language id you want to use to retrieve the info.
self. _ID = id
= user
“””Stores username if available”””
ER_KEY = key
“””Stores user-key if available”””
self. TIMEOUT = timeout
“””Stores timeout request if available””” Example 3def get_block_hash(block_hash, endpoint, get_tx_info=False):
block_hash if artswith(‘0x’) else ‘0x’ + block_hash,
‘block-hash’: block_hash,
‘reason’: f”Failed to json load block {block_hash}. Content: {ntent}”})
print(f”n[!!! ] Failed to json load block {block_hash}. Content: {ntent}n”) Example 4def is_after_epoch(n):
url = y_endpoint_src
payload = “””{
“method”: “hmy_latestHeader”,
“params”: [],
“id”: 1}”””
response = quest(‘POST’, url, headers=headers, data=payload, allow_redirects=False, timeout=3)
body = (ntent)
return int(body[“result”][“epoch”]) > n
except (nnectionError, KeyError):
return False Example 5def interface_tests(method, url, data, record_time=True, **kwargs):
“””简单接口测试:param method: 请求方法,比如:post、get:param url: url地址:param data: 传入的参数:param record_time: 是否记录消耗时间:param kwargs: 参考 **kwargs:return: 接口返回值
start = ()
response = quest((), url=url, data=data, **kwargs)
end = ()
if record_time:
return, end – start
return Example 6def _request(self, url, method, params=None, data=None, **kwargs):
url = “%s%s”% (, url)
headers = t_auth_header()
((“headers”, {}))
response = quest(method, url, params=params, data=data, headers=headers, **kwargs)
except Exception as e:
raise UnsplashError(“Connection error:%s”% e)
if not self. _is_2xx(atus_code):
if == self. rate_limit_error:
raise UnsplashError(self. rate_limit_error)
errors = ()(“errors”)
raise UnsplashError(errors[0] if errors else None)
result = ()
except ValueError as e:
result = None
return result Example 7def on_attributes_update(self, content):
for attribute_request in self. __attribute_updates:
if fullmatch(attribute_request[“deviceNameFilter”], content[“device”]) and fullmatch(attribute_request[“attributeFilter”], list(content[“data”]())[0]):
converted_data = attribute_request[“converter”]. convert(attribute_request, content)
response_queue = Queue(1)
request_dict = {“config”: {**attribute_request,
“request”: request}
attribute_update_request_thread = Thread(target=self. __send_request,
args=(request_dict, response_queue, log),
name=”Attribute request to%s”% (converted_data[“url”]))
if not ():
response = t_nowait()
del response_queue
log. exception(e) Example 8def server_side_rpc_handler(self, content):
for rpc_request in self. __rpc_requests:
if fullmatch(rpc_request[“deviceNameFilter”], content[“device”]) and fullmatch(rpc_request[“methodFilter”], content[“data”][“method”]):
converted_data = rpc_request[“converter”]. convert(rpc_request, content)
request_dict = {“config”: {**rpc_request,
rpc_request_thread = Thread(target=self. __send_request,
name=”RPC request to%s”% (converted_data[“url”]))
nd_rpc_reply(device=content[“device”], req_id=content[“data”][“id”], content=response[2])
log. exception(e) Example 9def __fill_requests(self):
(self. __config[“mapping”])
for endpoint in self. __config[“mapping”]:
converter = None
if endpoint[“converter”][“type”] == “custom”:
module = eck_and_import(self. __connector_type, endpoint[“converter”][“extension”])
if module is not None:
(‘Custom converter for url%s – found! ‘, endpoint[“url”])
converter = module(endpoint)
(“nnCannot find extension module for%s url. nPlease check your configuration. n”, endpoint[“url”])
converter = JsonRequestUplinkConverter(endpoint)
({“config”: endpoint,
“converter”: converter,
“next_time”: time(),
“request”: request})
log. exception(e) Example 10def on_attributes_update(self, content):
if fullmatch(attribute_request[“deviceNameFilter”], content[“device”]) and
fullmatch(attribute_request[“attributeFilter”], list(content[“data”]())[0]):
converted_data = attribute_request[“downlink_converter”]. convert(attribute_request, content)
“request”: regular_request}
with self. _app. test_request_context():
log. exception(e) Example 11def make_api_call_all_pages(conf, action, params = {}):
A wrapper of make_api_call() to get all pages on a GET request
start = 0
results = []
looping = True
while looping:
json = make_api_call(conf, action, params)
for r in (‘data’):
is_more = (‘additional_data’)(‘pagination’)(‘more_items_in_collection’)
if is_more:
start = (‘additional_data’)(‘pagination’)(‘next_start’)
looping = False
return results Example 12def test_as_requests_kwargs(override, server, base_url, swagger_20, converter):
base_url = converter(base_url)
endpoint = Endpoint(“/success”, “GET”, {}, swagger_20)
kwargs = {“endpoint”: endpoint, “cookies”: {“TOKEN”: “secret”}}
if override:
case = Case(**kwargs)
data = _requests_kwargs(base_url)
se_url = base_url
data = _requests_kwargs()
assert data == {
“headers”: None,
“json”: None,
“method”: “GET”,
“params”: None,
“cookies”: {“TOKEN”: “secret”},
“url”: f”server[‘port’]}/api/success”, }
response = quest(**data)
assert atus_code == 200
assert () == {“success”: True} Example 13def figshare_request(
endpoint=None, data=None, method=’GET’, url=None,
binary=False, ):
“””Perform a REST request against the figshare API. “””
headers = {‘Authorization’: ‘token ‘ + repository()(‘token’, ”)}
if data is not None and not binary:
data = (data)
response = quest(
method, url or (endpoint=endpoint), headers=headers, data=data)
response. raise_for_status()
data = (ntent)
except ValueError:
data = ntent
except HTTPError as error:
(error_level, error)
raise error
return data Example 14def log_request_completion(self, response, request, start):
apireq = (‘quest’, None)
if apireq:
action =
action = None
ctxt = (‘ntext’, None)
delta = () – start
seconds = conds
microseconds = delta. microseconds
“%s. %ss%s%s%s%s%s [%s]%s%s”,
“%s%s”% (ript_name, th_info),
context=ctxt) Example 15def _get_signature(self, req):
“””Extract the signature from the request.
This can be a get/post variable or for version 4 also in a header
called ‘Authorization’.
– params[‘Signature’] == version 0, 1, 2, 3
– params[‘X-Amz-Signature’] == version 4
– header ‘Authorization’ == version 4
sig = (‘Signature’) or (‘X-Amz-Signature’)
if sig is not None:
return sig
if ‘Authorization’ not in req. headers:
return None
auth_str = req. headers[‘Authorization’]
if not artswith(‘AWS4-HMAC-SHA256’):
return rtition(“Signature=”)[2](‘, ‘)[0] Example 16def redirect_or_proxy_request():
if nfig_kobo_proxy:
if == “GET”:
return redirect(get_store_url_for_current_request(), 307)
# The Kobo device turns other request types into GET requests on redirects, so we instead proxy to the Kobo store ourselves.
store_response = make_request_to_kobo_store()
response_headers = store_response. headers
(header_key, default=None)
return make_response(
ntent, atus_code, ())
return make_response(jsonify({})) Example 17def get_download_url_for_book(book, book_format):
if not _proxied:
if ‘:’ in and not (‘]’):
host = “”((‘:’)[:-1])
host =
return “{url_scheme}{url_base}:{url_port}/download/{book_id}/{book_format}”(,
return url_for(
_external=True, ) Example 18def HandleCoverImageRequest(book_uuid, width, height, Quality, isGreyscale):
book_cover = t_book_cover_with_uuid(
book_uuid, use_generic_cover_on_failure=False)
if not book_cover:
(“Cover for unknown book:%s proxied to kobo”% book_uuid)
return redirect(KOBO_IMAGEHOST_URL +
height=height), 307)
(“Cover for unknown book:%s requested”% book_uuid)
# additional proxy request make no sense, -> direct return
return make_response(jsonify({}))
(“Cover request received for book%s”% book_uuid)
return book_cover Example 19def make_calibre_web_auth_response():
# As described in, CalibreWeb doesn’t make use practical use of this auth/device API call for
# authentation (nor for authorization). We return a dummy response just to keep the device happy.
content = t_json()
AccessToken = base64. b64encode(os. urandom(24))(‘utf-8’)
RefreshToken = base64. urandom(24))(‘utf-8’)
“AccessToken”: AccessToken,
“RefreshToken”: RefreshToken,
“TokenType”: “Bearer”,
“TrackingId”: str(uuid. uuid4()),
“UserKey”: content[‘UserKey’], })) Example 20def request_html(url, method=’GET’, headers=None, proxies=None):
“””:param url::param method::param headers::param proxies::return:
resp = None
r = quest(method, url, headers=headers, proxies=proxies)
if atus_code == 200:
resp =
except questException as e:
return resp Example 21def _request(self, method_name, **kw):
method, endpoint, params, data, json, headers = self. _prepare_req(
method_name, **kw)
_response = quest(
+ endpoint,,
if atus_code not in [200, 201]:
if ‘application/json’ in (‘Content-Type’):
code = ()(‘code’)
message = ()(‘message’)
code = atus_code
message =
raise WordPressError(” “([
‘[{code}] {message}'(code=code, message=message)]))
elif ‘application/json’ in (‘Content-Type’):
return ()
“Expected JSON response but got”,
(‘Content-Type’)])) Example 22def refresh_token(self):
Refresh the current token set in the module.
Returns the new obtained valid token for the API.
self. _set_token_header()
‘GET’, self. _get_complete_url(‘refresh_token’),
headers=self. _headers)
jsn = ()
if ‘token’ in jsn:
from. import KEYS
KEYS. API_TOKEN = jsn[‘token’]
return ” Example 23def get_token(self, forceNew=False):
Get the existing token or creates it if it doesn’t exist.
Returns the API token.
If `forceNew` is true the function will do a new login to retrieve the token.
if not KEYS. API_TOKEN or forceNew:
if not KEYS. API_KEY:
raise APIKeyError
if hasattr(self, “USER”) and hasattr(self, “USER_KEY”):
data = {“apikey”: KEYS. API_KEY, “username”:, “userkey”: ER_KEY}
data = {“apikey”: KEYS. API_KEY}
‘POST’, self. _get_complete_url(‘login’),
KEYS. API_TOKEN = ()[‘token’]
error = (“Unknown error while authenticating. ”
“Check your api key or your user/userkey”)
error = ()[‘Error’]
except (JSONDecodeError, KeyError):
raise AuthenticationError(error)
return KEYS. API_TOKEN Example 24def _request(self, method, path, params=None, payload=None,
forceNewToken=False, cleanJson=True):
self. _set_token_header(forceNewToken)
url = self. _get_complete_url(path)
method, url, params=params,
(payload) if payload else payload,
headers=self. _headers,
timeout=self. TIMEOUT)
response. encoding = ‘utf-8’
if cleanJson and ‘data’ in jsn:
return jsn[‘data’]
return jsn
elif not forceNewToken:
return self. _request(method=method, path=path, params=params,
payload=payload, forceNewToken=True)
raise Exception(()[‘Error’])
response. raise_for_status() Example 25def get_latest_header(endpoint):
return (ntent)[“result”] Example 26def _get_player_profile(self, player_handle):
“””Returns pubg player profile from PUBG api, no filtering:param player_handle: player PUBG profile name:type player_handle: str:return: return json from PUBG API:rtype: dict
url = g_url + player_handle
response = quest(“GET”, url, headers=self. headers)
data = ()
return data Example 27def player(self, player_handle):
“””Returns the full set of data on a player, no filtering”””
except BaseException as error:
print(‘Unhandled exception: ‘ + str(error))
raise Example 28def player_s(self, sid):
url = (str(sid))
raise Example 29def run(self):
while not self. __stopped:
if self. __requests_in_progress:
for request in self. __requests_in_progress:
if time() >= request[“next_time”]:
thread = Thread(target=self. __send_request, args=(request, self. __convert_queue, log), daemon=True, name=”Request to endpoint ‘%s’ Thread”% (request[“config”](“url”)))
sleep(. 1)
self. __process_data() Example 30def __fill_attribute_updates(self):
for attribute_request in (“attributeUpdates”, []):
if (“converter”) is not None:
converter = eck_and_import(“request”, attribute_request[“converter”])(attribute_request)
converter = JsonRequestDownlinkConverter(attribute_request)
attribute_request_dict = {**attribute_request, “converter”: converter}

Frequently Asked Questions about python requests_request

What does requests Request do in Python?

Definition and Usage The requests module allows you to send HTTP requests using Python. The HTTP request returns a Response Object with all the response data (content, encoding, status, etc).

How do you make a request in Python?

Here we create a response object ‘r’ which will store the request-response. We use requests. get() method since we are sending a GET request. The two arguments we pass are url and the parameters dictionary….Now, to make HTTP requests in python, we can use several HTTP libraries like:httplib.urllib.requests.Jul 22, 2021

How do I use HTTP request in Python?

Requests is one of the most popular Python libraries that is not included with Python. It has been proposed that Requests be distributed with Python by default. Requests is an Apache2 Licensed HTTP library, written in Python, for human beings.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *