• June 10, 2024

Nodejs Request Proxy

proxy authentication in node.js with module request - Stack ...

proxy authentication in node.js with module request – Stack …

I’m trying to use the module request in my app, and I need to configure proxy settings with authentication.
My settings are something like this:
How can i set my proxy configuration when i make a request? Could someone give me an example? thanks
asked May 10 ’14 at 19:29
VictorVictor4, 6532 gold badges37 silver badges51 bronze badges
Here is an example of how to configure ():
//.. stuff to get my proxy config (credentials, host and port)
var proxyUrl = “” + user + “:” + password + “@” + host + “:” + port;
var proxiedRequest = faults({‘proxy’: proxyUrl});
(“, function (err, resp, body) {… })
answered May 25 ’14 at 14:45
The accepted answer is not wrong, but I wanted to pass along an alternative that satisfied a bit of a different need that I found.
My project in particular has an array of proxies to choose from, not just one. So each time I make a request, it doesn’t make much sense to re-set the faults object. Instead, you can just pass it through directly to the request options.
var reqOpts = {
url: reqUrl,
method: “GET”,
headers: {“Cache-Control”: “no-cache”},
proxy: tProxy()};
tProxy() returns a string to the equivalent of [protocol][username]:[pass]@[address]:[port]
Then make the request
request(reqOpts, function(err, response, body){
//handle your business here});
Hope this helps someone who is coming along this with the same issue. Cheers.
John3, 3486 gold badges29 silver badges36 bronze badges
answered Nov 17 ’14 at 4:24
the proxy paramater takes a string with the url for your proxy server, in my case the proxy server was at
url: ‘someurl/api’,
method: ‘POST’,
proxy: ”,
headers: {
‘Content-Length’: ‘2170’,
‘Cache-Control’: ‘max-age=0’},
body: body}, function(error, response, body){
if(error) {
(error);} else {
(atusCode, body);}
data: { body: body}})});
answered Oct 28 ’15 at 10:32
svnmsvnm18. 4k19 gold badges83 silver badges101 bronze badges
Not the answer you’re looking for? Browse other questions tagged proxy client proxy-authentication or ask your own question.
Request - Simplified HTTP client - GitHub

Request – Simplified HTTP client – GitHub

As of Feb 11th 2020, request is fully deprecated. No new changes are expected to land. In fact, none have landed for some time.
For more information about why request is deprecated and possible alternatives refer to
this issue.
Super simple to use
Request is designed to be the simplest way possible to make calls. It supports HTTPS and follows redirects by default.
const request = require(‘request’);
request(”, function (error, response, body) {
(‘error:’, error); // Print the error if one occurred
(‘statusCode:’, response && atusCode); // Print the response status code if a response was received
(‘body:’, body); // Print the HTML for the Google homepage. });
Table of contents
Promises & Async/Await
HTTP Authentication
Custom HTTP Headers
OAuth Signing
Unix Domain Sockets
TLS/SSL Protocol
Support for HAR 1. 2
All Available Options
Request also offers convenience methods like
faults and, and there are
lots of usage examples and several
debugging techniques.
You can stream any response to a file stream.
You can also stream a file to a PUT or POST request. This method will also check the file extension against a mapping of file extensions to content-types (in this case application/json) and use the proper content-type in the PUT request (if the headers don’t already provide one).
Request can also pipe to itself. When doing so, content-type and content-length are preserved in the PUT headers.
Request emits a “response” event when a response is received. The response argument will be an instance of comingMessage.
(‘response’, function(response) {
(atusCode) // 200
(response. headers[‘content-type’]) // ‘image/png’})
To easily handle errors when streaming requests, listen to the error event before piping:
(‘error’, function(err) {
Now let’s get fancy.
eateServer(function (req, resp) {
if ( === ‘/’) {
if ( === ‘PUT’) {
((”))} else if ( === ‘GET’ || === ‘HEAD’) {
You can also pipe() from rverRequest instances, as well as to rverResponse instances. The HTTP method, headers, and entity-body data will be sent. Which means that, if you don’t really care about security, you can do:
const x = request(”)
And since pipe() returns the destination stream in ≥ Node 0. 5. x you can do one line proxying. 🙂
Also, none of this new functionality conflicts with requests previous features, it just expands them.
const r = faults({‘proxy’:”})
You can still use intermediate proxies, the requests will still follow HTTP forwards, etc.
back to top
request supports both streaming and callback interfaces natively. If you’d like request to return a Promise instead, you can use an alternative interface wrapper for request. These wrappers can be useful if you prefer to work with Promises, or if you’d like to use async/await in ES2017.
Several alternative interfaces are provided by the request team, including:
request-promise (uses Bluebird Promises)
request-promise-native (uses native Promises)
request-promise-any (uses any-promise Promises)
Also, omisify, which is available from v8. 0 can be used to convert a regular function that takes a callback to return a promise instead.
request supports application/x-www-form-urlencoded and multipart/form-data form uploads. For multipart/related refer to the multipart API.
application/x-www-form-urlencoded (URL-Encoded Forms)
URL-encoded forms are simple.
(”, {form:{key:’value’}})
// or
({url:”, form: {key:’value’}}, function(err, Response, body){ /*… */})
multipart/form-data (Multipart Form Uploads)
For multipart/form-data we use the form-data library by @felixge. For the most cases, you can pass your upload form data via the formData option.
const formData = {
// Pass a simple key-value pair
my_field: ‘my_value’,
// Pass data via Buffers
my_buffer: ([1, 2, 3]),
// Pass data via Streams
my_file: eateReadStream(__dirname + ‘/’),
// Pass multiple values /w an Array
attachments: [
eateReadStream(__dirname + ‘/’),
eateReadStream(__dirname + ‘/’)],
// Pass optional meta-data with an ‘options’ object with style: {value: DATA, options: OPTIONS}
// Use case: for some types of streams, you’ll need to provide “file”-related information manually.
// See the `form-data` README for more information about options: custom_file: {
value: eateReadStream(‘/dev/urandom’),
options: {
filename: ”,
contentType: ‘image/jpeg’}}};
({url:”, formData: formData}, function optionalCallback(err, Response, body) {
if (err) {
return (‘upload failed:’, err);}
(‘Upload successful! Server responded with:’, body);});
For advanced cases, you can access the form-data object itself via (). This can be modified until the request is fired on the next cycle of the event-loop. (Note that this calling form() will clear the currently set form data for that request. )
// NOTE: Advanced use-case, for normal use see ‘formData’ usage above
const r = (”, function optionalCallback(err, Response, body) {… })
const form = ();
(‘my_field’, ‘my_value’);
(‘my_buffer’, ([1, 2, 3]));
(‘custom_file’, eateReadStream(__dirname + ‘/’), {filename: ”});
See the form-data README for more information & examples.
Some variations in different HTTP implementations require a newline/CRLF before, after, or both before and after the boundary of a multipart/related request (using the multipart option). This has been observed in the WebAPI version 4. 0. You can turn on a boundary preambleCRLF or postamble by passing them as true to your request options.
method: ‘PUT’,
preambleCRLF: true,
postambleCRLF: true,
uri: ”,
multipart: [
‘content-type’: ‘application/json’,
body: ringify({foo: ‘bar’, _attachments: {”: {follows: true, length: 18, ‘content_type’: ‘text/plain’}}})},
{ body: ‘I am an attachment’},
{ body: eateReadStream(”)}],
// alternatively pass an object containing additional options
multipart: {
chunked: false,
data: [
{ body: ‘I am an attachment’}]}},
function (error, response, body) {
if (error) {
return (‘upload failed:’, error);}
(‘Upload successful! Server responded with:’, body);})
(”)(‘username’, ‘password’, false);
(”, {
‘auth’: {
‘user’: ‘username’,
‘pass’: ‘password’,
‘sendImmediately’: false}});
(”)(null, null, true, ‘bearerToken’);
‘bearer’: ‘bearerToken’}});
If passed as an option, auth should be a hash containing values:
user || username
pass || password
sendImmediately (optional)
bearer (optional)
The method form takes parameters
auth(username, password, sendImmediately, bearer).
sendImmediately defaults to true, which causes a basic or bearer
authentication header to be sent. If sendImmediately is false, then
request will retry with a proper authentication header after receiving a
401 response from the server (which must contain a WWW-Authenticate header
indicating the required authentication method).
Note that you can also specify basic authentication using the URL itself, as
detailed in RFC 1738. Simply pass the
user:password before the host with an @ sign:
const username = ‘username’,
password = ‘password’,
url = ” + username + ‘:’ + password + ”;
request({url}, function (error, response, body) {
// Do more stuff with ‘body’ here});
Digest authentication is supported, but it only works with sendImmediately
set to false; otherwise request will send basic authentication on the
initial request, which will probably cause the request to fail.
Bearer authentication is supported, and is activated when the bearer value is
available. The value may be either a String or a Function returning a
String. Using a function to supply the bearer token is particularly useful if
used in conjunction with defaults to allow a single function to supply the
last known token at the time of sending a request, or to compute one on the fly.
HTTP Headers, such as User-Agent, can be set in the options object.
In the example below, we call the github API to find out the number
of stars and forks for the request repository. This requires a
custom User-Agent header as well as.
const options = {
url: ”,
headers: {
‘User-Agent’: ‘request’}};
function callback(error, response, body) {
if (! error && atusCode == 200) {
const info = (body);
(argazers_count + ” Stars”);
(rks_count + ” Forks”);}}
request(options, callback);
OAuth version 1. 0 is supported. The
default signing algorithm is
// OAuth1. 0 – 3-legged server side flow (Twitter example)
// step 1
const qs = require(‘querystring’), oauth =
{ callback: ”, consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET}, url = ”;
({url:url, oauth:oauth}, function (e, r, body) {
// Ideally, you would take the body in the response
// and construct a URL that a user clicks on (like a sign in button).
// The verifier is only available in the response after a user has
// verified with twitter that they are authorizing your app.
// step 2
const req_data = (body)
const uri = ”
+ ‘? ‘ + ringify({oauth_token: req_data. oauth_token})
// redirect the user to the authorize uri
// step 3
// after the user is redirected back to your server
const auth_data = (body), oauth =
{ consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET, token: auth_data. oauth_token, token_secret: req_data. oauth_token_secret, verifier: auth_data. oauth_verifier}, url = ”;
// ready to make signed requests on behalf of the user
const perm_data = (body), oauth =
{ consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET, token: perm_data. oauth_token, token_secret: perm_data. oauth_token_secret}, url = ”, qs =
{ screen_name: reen_name, user_id: er_id};
({url:url, oauth:oauth, qs:qs, json:true}, function (e, r, user) {
For RSA-SHA1 signing, make
the following changes to the OAuth options object:
Pass signature_method: ‘RSA-SHA1’
Instead of consumer_secret, specify a private_key string in
PEM format
For PLAINTEXT signing, make
Pass signature_method: ‘PLAINTEXT’
To send OAuth parameters via query params or in a post body as described in The
Consumer Request Parameters
section of the oauth1 spec:
Pass transport_method: ‘query’ or transport_method: ‘body’ in the OAuth
options object.
transport_method defaults to ‘header’
To use Request Body Hash you can either
Manually generate the body hash and pass it as a string body_hash: ‘… ‘
Automatically generate the body hash by passing body_hash: true
If you specify a proxy option, then the request (and any subsequent
redirects) will be sent via a connection to the proxy server.
If your endpoint is an url, and you are using a proxy, then
request will send a CONNECT request to the proxy server first, and
then use the supplied connection to connect to the endpoint.
That is, first it will make a request like:
User-Agent: whatever user agent you specify
and then the proxy server make a TCP connection to endpoint-server
on port 80, and return a response that looks like:
At this point, the connection is left open, and the client is
communicating directly with the machine.
See the wikipedia page on HTTP Tunneling
for more information.
By default, when proxying traffic, request will simply make a
standard proxied request. This is done by making the url
section of the initial line of the request a fully qualified url to
the endpoint.
For example, it will make a single request that looks like:
HTTP/1. 1 GET Host:
Other-Headers: all go here
request body or whatever
Because a pure ” over ” tunnel offers no additional security
or other features, it is generally simpler to go with a
straightforward HTTP proxy in this case. However, if you would like
to force a tunneling proxy, you may set the tunnel option to true.
You can also make a standard proxied request by explicitly setting
tunnel: false, but note that this will allow the proxy to see the traffic
to/from the destination server.
If you are using a tunneling proxy, you may set the
proxyHeaderWhiteList to share certain headers with the proxy.
You can also set the proxyHeaderExclusiveList to share certain
headers only with the proxy and not with destination host.
By default, this set is:
Note that, when using a tunneling proxy, the proxy-authorization
header and any headers from custom proxyHeaderExclusiveList are
never sent to the endpoint server, but only to the proxy server.
Controlling proxy behaviour using environment variables
The following environment variables are respected by request:
HTTP_PROXY / _proxy
HTTPS_PROXY / _proxy
NO_PROXY / no_proxy
When HTTP_PROXY / _proxy are set, they will be used to proxy non-SSL requests that do not have an explicit proxy configuration option present. Similarly, HTTPS_PROXY / _proxy will be respected for SSL requests that do not have an explicit proxy configuration option. It is valid to define a proxy in one of the environment variables, but then override it for a specific request, using the proxy configuration option. Furthermore, the proxy configuration option can be explicitly set to false / null to opt out of proxying altogether for that request.
request is also aware of the NO_PROXY/no_proxy environment variables. These variables provide a granular way to opt out of proxying, on a per-host basis. It should contain a comma separated list of hosts to opt out of proxying. It is also possible to opt of proxying when a particular destination port is used. Finally, the variable may be set to * to opt out of the implicit proxy configuration of the other environment variables.
Here’s some examples of valid no_proxy values:
– don’t proxy HTTP/HTTPS requests to Google.
– don’t proxy HTTPS requests to Google, but do proxy HTTP requests to Google., – don’t proxy HTTPS requests to Google, and don’t proxy HTTP requests to Yahoo!
* – ignore _proxy/_proxy environment variables altogether.
UNIX Domain Sockets
request supports making requests to UNIX Domain Sockets. To make one, use the following URL scheme:
/* Pattern */ ‘unix:SOCKET:PATH’
/* Example */ (‘unix:/absolute/path/to/’)
Note: The SOCKET path is assumed to be absolute to the root of the host file system.
TLS/SSL Protocol options, such as cert, key and passphrase, can be
set directly in options object, in the agentOptions property of the options object, or even in obalAgent. options. Keep in mind that, although agentOptions allows for a slightly wider range of configurations, the recommended way is via options object directly, as using agentOptions or obalAgent. options would not be applied in the same way in proxied environments (as data travels through a TLS connection instead of an / agent).
const fs = require(‘fs’), path = require(‘path’), certFile = solve(__dirname, ‘ssl/’), keyFile = solve(__dirname, ‘ssl/’), caFile = solve(__dirname, ‘ssl/’), request = require(‘request’);
cert: adFileSync(certFile),
key: adFileSync(keyFile),
passphrase: ‘password’,
ca: adFileSync(caFile)};
Using entOptions
In the example below, we call an API that requires client side SSL certificate
(in PEM format) with passphrase protected private key (in PEM format) and disable the SSLv3 protocol:
const fs = require(‘fs’), path = require(‘path’), certFile = solve(__dirname, ‘ssl/’), keyFile = solve(__dirname, ‘ssl/’), request = require(‘request’);
agentOptions: {
// Or use `pfx` property replacing `cert` and `key` when using private key, certificate and CA certs in PFX or PKCS12 format:
// pfx: adFileSync(pfxFilePath),
securityOptions: ‘SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3’}};
It is able to force using SSLv3 only by specifying secureProtocol:
secureProtocol: ‘SSLv3_method’}});
It is possible to accept other certificates than those signed by generally allowed Certificate Authorities (CAs).
This can be useful, for example, when using self-signed certificates.
To require a different root certificate, you can specify the signing CA by adding the contents of the CA’s certificate file to the agentOptions.
The certificate the domain presents must be signed by the root certificate specified:
ca: adFileSync(”)}});
The ca value can be an array of certificates, in the event you have a private or internal corporate public-key infrastructure hierarchy. For example, if you want to connect to which presents a key chain consisting of:
its own public key, which is signed by:
an intermediate “Corp Issuing Server”, that is in turn signed by:
a root CA “Corp Root CA”;
you can configure your request as follows:
ca: [
adFileSync(‘Corp Issuing ‘),
adFileSync(‘Corp Root ‘)]}});
The property will override the values: url, method, qs, headers, form, formData, body, json, as well as construct multipart data and read files from disk when []. fileName is present without a matching value.
A validation step will check if the HAR Request format matches the latest spec (v1. 2) and will skip parsing if not matching.
const request = require(‘request’)
// will be ignored
method: ‘GET’,
// HTTP Archive Request Object
har: {
method: ‘POST’,
headers: [
name: ‘content-type’,
value: ‘application/x-www-form-urlencoded’}],
postData: {
mimeType: ‘application/x-www-form-urlencoded’,
params: [
name: ‘foo’,
value: ‘bar’},
name: ‘hello’,
value: ‘world’}]}}})
// a POST request will be sent to // with body an application/x-www-form-urlencoded body:
// foo=bar&hello=world
request(options, callback)
The first argument can be either a url or an options object. The only required option is uri; all others are optional.
uri || url – fully qualified uri or a parsed url object from ()
baseUrl – fully qualified uri string used as the base url. Most useful with faults, for example when you want to do many requests to the same domain. If baseUrl is, then requesting /end/point? test=true will fetch. When baseUrl is given, uri must also be a string.
method – method (default: “GET”)
headers – headers (default: {})
qs – object containing querystring values to be appended to the uri
qsParseOptions – object containing options to pass to the method. Alternatively pass options to the method using this format {sep:’;’, eq:’:’, options:{}}
qsStringifyOptions – object containing options to pass to the ringify method. Alternatively pass options to the ringify method using this format {sep:’;’, eq:’:’, options:{}}. For example, to change the way arrays are converted to query strings using the qs module pass the arrayFormat option with one of indices|brackets|repeat
useQuerystring – if true, use querystring to stringify and parse
querystrings, otherwise use qs (default: false). Set this option to
true if you need arrays to be serialized as foo=bar&foo=baz instead of the
default foo[0]=bar&foo[1]=baz.
body – entity body for PATCH, POST and PUT requests. Must be a Buffer, String or ReadStream. If json is true, then body must be a JSON-serializable object.
form – when passed an object or a querystring, this sets body to a querystring representation of value, and adds Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded header. When passed no options, a FormData instance is returned (and is piped to request). See “Forms” section above.
formData – data to pass for a multipart/form-data request. See
Forms section above.
multipart – array of objects which contain their own headers and body
attributes. Sends a multipart/related request. See Forms section
Alternatively you can pass in an object {chunked: false, data: []} where
chunked is used to specify whether the request is sent in
chunked transfer encoding
In non-chunked requests, data items with body streams are not allowed.
preambleCRLF – append a newline/CRLF before the boundary of your multipart/form-data request.
postambleCRLF – append a newline/CRLF at the end of the boundary of your multipart/form-data request.
json – sets body to JSON representation of value and adds Content-type: application/json header. Additionally, parses the response body as JSON.
jsonReviver – a reviver function that will be passed to () when parsing a JSON response body.
jsonReplacer – a replacer function that will be passed to ringify() when stringifying a JSON request body.
auth – a hash containing values user || username, pass || password, and sendImmediately (optional). See documentation above.
oauth – options for OAuth HMAC-SHA1 signing. See documentation above.
hawk – options for Hawk signing. The credentials key must contain the necessary signing info, see hawk docs for details.
aws – object containing AWS signing information. Should have the properties key, secret, and optionally session (note that this only works for services that require session as part of the canonical string). Also requires the property bucket, unless you’re specifying your bucket as part of the path, or the request doesn’t use a bucket (i. e. GET Services). If you want to use AWS sign version 4 use the parameter sign_version with value 4 otherwise the default is version 2. If you are using SigV4, you can also include a service property that specifies the service name. Note: you need to npm install aws4 first.
Signature – options for the HTTP Signature Scheme using Joyent’s library. The keyId and key properties must be specified. See the docs for other options.
followRedirect – follow HTTP 3xx responses as redirects (default: true). This property can also be implemented as function which gets response object as a single argument and should return true if redirects should continue or false otherwise.
followAllRedirects – follow non-GET HTTP 3xx responses as redirects (default: false)
followOriginalHttpMethod – by default we redirect to HTTP method GET. you can enable this property to redirect to the original HTTP method (default: false)
maxRedirects – the maximum number of redirects to follow (default: 10)
removeRefererHeader – removes the referer header when a redirect happens (default: false). Note: if true, referer header set in the initial request is preserved during redirect chain.
encoding – encoding to be used on setEncoding of response data. If null, the body is returned as a Buffer. Anything else (including the default value of undefined) will be passed as the encoding parameter to toString() (meaning this is effectively utf8 by default). (Note: if you expect binary data, you should set encoding: null. )
gzip – if true, add an Accept-Encoding header to request compressed content encodings from the server (if not already present) and decode supported content encodings in the response. Note: Automatic decoding of the response content is performed on the body data returned through request (both through the request stream and passed to the callback function) but is not performed on the response stream (available from the response event) which is the unmodified comingMessage object which may contain compressed data. See example below.
jar – if true, remember cookies for future use (or define your custom cookie jar; see examples section)
agent – (s) instance to use
agentClass – alternatively specify your agent’s class name
agentOptions – and pass its options. Note: for HTTPS see tls API doc for TLS/SSL options and the documentation above.
forever – set to true to use the forever-agent Note: Defaults to (s)({keepAlive:true}) in node 0. 12+
pool – an object describing which agents to use for the request. If this option is omitted the request will use the global agent (as long as your options allow for it). Otherwise, request will search the pool for your custom agent. If no custom agent is found, a new agent will be created and added to the pool. Note: pool is used only when the agent option is not specified.
A maxSockets property can also be provided on the pool object to set the max number of sockets for all agents created (ex: pool: {maxSockets: Infinity}).
Note that if you are sending multiple requests in a loop and creating
multiple new pool objects, maxSockets will not work as intended. To
work around this, either use faults
with your pool options or create the pool object with the maxSockets
property outside of the loop.
timeout – integer containing number of milliseconds, controls two timeouts.
Read timeout: Time to wait for a server to send response headers (and start the response body) before aborting the request.
Connection timeout: Sets the socket to timeout after timeout milliseconds of inactivity. Note that increasing the timeout beyond the OS-wide TCP connection timeout will not have any effect (the default in Linux can be anywhere from 20-120 seconds)
localAddress – local interface to bind for network connections.
proxy – an HTTP proxy to be used. Supports proxy Auth with Basic Auth, identical to support for the url parameter (by embedding the auth info in the uri)
strictSSL – if true, requires SSL certificates be valid. Note: to use your own certificate authority, you need to specify an agent that was created with that CA as an option.
tunnel – controls the behavior of
HTTP CONNECT tunneling
as follows:
undefined (default) – true if the destination is, false otherwise
true – always tunnel to the destination by making a CONNECT request to
the proxy
false – request the destination as a GET request.
proxyHeaderWhiteList – a whitelist of headers to send to a
tunneling proxy.
proxyHeaderExclusiveList – a whitelist of headers to send
exclusively to a tunneling proxy and not to destination.
time – if true, the request-response cycle (including all redirects) is timed at millisecond resolution. When set, the following properties are added to the response object:
elapsedTime Duration of the entire request/response in milliseconds (deprecated).
responseStartTime Timestamp when the response began (in Unix Epoch milliseconds) (deprecated).
timingStart Timestamp of the start of the request (in Unix Epoch milliseconds).
timings Contains event timestamps in millisecond resolution relative to timingStart. If there were redirects, the properties reflect the timings of the final request in the redirect chain:
socket Relative timestamp when the module’s socket event fires. This happens when the socket is assigned to the request.
lookup Relative timestamp when the net module’s lookup event fires. This happens when the DNS has been resolved.
connect: Relative timestamp when the net module’s connect event fires. This happens when the server acknowledges the TCP connection.
response: Relative timestamp when the module’s response event fires. This happens when the first bytes are received from the server.
end: Relative timestamp when the last bytes of the response are received.
timingPhases Contains the durations of each request phase. If there were redirects, the properties reflect the timings of the final request in the redirect chain:
wait: Duration of socket initialization ()
dns: Duration of DNS lookup ( -)
tcp: Duration of TCP connection (nnect -)
firstByte: Duration of HTTP server response (sponse – nnect)
download: Duration of HTTP download ( – sponse)
total: Duration entire HTTP round-trip ()
har – a HAR 1. 2 Request Object, will be processed from HAR format into options overwriting matching values (see the HAR 1. 2 section for details)
callback – alternatively pass the request’s callback in the options object
The callback argument gets 3 arguments:
An error when applicable (usually from ientRequest object)
An comingMessage object (Response object)
The third is the response body (String or Buffer, or JSON object if the json option is supplied)
Convenience methods
There are also shorthand methods for different HTTP METHODs and some other conveniences.
This method returns a wrapper around the normal request API that defaults
to whatever options you pass to it.
Note: faults() does not modify the global request API;
instead, it returns a wrapper that has your default settings applied to it.
Note: You can call. defaults() on the wrapper that is returned from
faults to add/override defaults that were previously defaulted.
For example:
//requests using baseRequest() will set the ‘x-token’ header
const baseRequest = faults({
headers: {‘x-token’: ‘my-token’}})
//requests using specialRequest() will include the ‘x-token’ header set in
//baseRequest and will also include the ‘special’ header
const specialRequest = faults({
headers: {special: ‘special value’}})
These HTTP method convenience functions act just like request() but with a default method already set for you:
(): Defaults to method: “GET”.
(): Defaults to method: “POST”.
(): Defaults to method: “PUT”.
(): Defaults to method: “PATCH”.
() / (): Defaults to method: “DELETE”.
(): Defaults to method: “HEAD”.
request. options(): Defaults to method: “OPTIONS”.
Function that creates a new cookie.
Function that creates a new cookie jar.
Function that returns the specified response header field using a case-insensitive match
// print the Content-Type header even if the server returned it as ‘content-type’ (lowercase)
(‘Content-Type is:’, (‘Content-Type’));});
There are at least three ways to debug the operation of request:
Launch the node process like NODE_DEBUG=request node
(lib, request, otherlib works too).
Set require(‘request’) = true at any time (this does the same thing
as #1).
Use the request-debug module to
view request and response headers and bodies.
Most requests to external servers should have a timeout attached, in case the
server is not responding in a timely manner. Without a timeout, your code may
have a socket open/consume resources for minutes or more.
There are two main types of timeouts: connection timeouts and read
timeouts. A connect timeout occurs if the timeout is hit while your client is
attempting to establish a connection to a remote machine (corresponding to the
connect() call on the socket). A read timeout occurs any time the
server is too slow to send back a part of the response.
These two situations have widely different implications for what went wrong
with the request, so it’s useful to be able to distinguish them. You can detect
timeout errors by checking for an ‘ETIMEDOUT’ value. Further, you
can detect whether the timeout was a connection timeout by checking if the
nnect property is set to true.
(”, {timeout: 1500}, function(err) {
( === ‘ETIMEDOUT’);
// Set to `true` if the timeout was a connection timeout, `false` or
// `undefined` otherwise.
(nnect === true);
const request = require(‘request’), rand = (()*100000000). toString();
{ method: ‘PUT’, uri: ” + rand, multipart:
[ { ‘content-type’: ‘application/json’, body: ringify({foo: ‘bar’, _attachments: {”: {follows: true, length: 18, ‘content_type’: ‘text/plain’}}})}, { body: ‘I am an attachment’}]}, function (error, response, body) {
if(atusCode == 201){
(‘document saved as: ‘+ rand)} else {
(‘error: ‘+ atusCode)
For backwards-compatibility, response compression is not supported by default.
To accept gzip-compressed responses, set the gzip option to true. Note
that the body data passed through request is automatically decompressed
while the response object is unmodified and will contain compressed data if
the server sent a compressed response.
{ method: ‘GET’, uri: ”, gzip: true}, function (error, response, body) {
// body is the decompressed response body
(‘server encoded the data as: ‘ + (response. headers[‘content-encoding’] || ‘identity’))
(‘the decoded data is: ‘ + body)})
(‘data’, function(data) {
// decompressed data as it is received
(‘decoded chunk: ‘ + data)})
// unmodified comingMessage object
// compressed data as it is received
(‘received ‘ + + ‘ bytes of compressed data’)})})
Cookies are disabled by default (else, they would be used in subsequent requests). To enable cookies, set jar to true (either in defaults or options).
const request = faults({jar: true})
request(”, function () {
To use a custom cookie jar (instead of request’s global cookie jar), set jar to an instance of () (either in defaults or options)
const j = ()
const request = faults({jar:j})
const j = ();
const cookie = (‘key1=value1’);
Build a Node.js Proxy Server in Under 10 minutes! - Twilio

Build a Node.js Proxy Server in Under 10 minutes! – Twilio

We have all heard the term “proxy”. It might sound like it’s some kind of portal to a new dimension from the Matrix movies, but it turns out it’s very very useful!
In a nutshell, a proxy is an intermediary application which sits between two (or more) services and processes/modifies the requests and responses in both directions. This sounds complicated, I know, but let’s try with a simpler analogy:
Imagine you meet someone from Spain, but you don’t speak Spanish. What do you do? Well, you remember that your friend Santiago knows both Spanish and English and can translate for you.
The process goes like this:
You tell something to Santiago in English
Santiago translates it to Spanish in his head and says it in Spanish to your new friend
Your new friend replies back to Santiago in Spanish
Santiago then translates it in his head and tells you the response in English
Santiago in this case serves as a proxy between you and your new friend. You can’t speak directly to each other but thanks to the translator you can relay messages (i. e. requests and responses) and have a conversation!
Okay, now that we know what a proxy is, what are the use cases for it? Well, here are a few that we, at Twilio, find really useful:
Authorization – Forward only requests that are authorized to access a service
Load balancing – Distribute the requests equally among many instances
Logging – Log every requests going to a Back End API service
And many more…
Now that you know what a proxy is and why it is useful, let’s build a simple one using!
To follow along, you need and Yarn installed, which are available on Mac, Windows and Linux distributions.
Build the simple proxy
In a few easy steps we are going to create a simple proxy in which can forward requests to multiple different servers/endpoints!
The full code which will be implemented step-by-step is available on GitHub here.
Initialize the project
Let’s start by initiating a new node project:
This will generate a file which will contain a basic project configuration. The command will prompt you with multiple questions (name, version, description, etc. ) – you can click ‘Enter’ on all of them to accept the default values (for example, by default the entry point will be).
Install dependencies
We need a few packages to make the proxy work:
express: Minimalist web framework
-proxy-middleware: Simple proxy framework
(optional) morgan – HTTP request logger middleware
which we can install by running:
yarn add express -proxy-middleware morgan
Define a start command
We need to add a start command to our project, so after a small change, your file should look like this (Depending on when you install these packages, some version numbers might differ, but their core functionality should stay the same. If the behaviour is drastically different, check their latest documentations. ):
“name”: “simple-nodejs-proxy”,
“version”: “1. 0. 0”,
“main”: “”,
“license”: “MIT”,
“dependencies”: {
“express”: “^4. 17. 1”,
“-proxy-middleware”: “^1. 5”,
“morgan”: “^1. 10. 0”},
“scripts”: {
“start”: “node “}}
If we now add an empty file, we can execute the project through:
This should run the file. Because the file is empty the console output should also be empty.
But enough configurations, let’s actually proxy some requests!
Create a simple proxy
This is where the interesting bits begin. Go ahead and open the file and add the necessary imports:
const express = require(‘express’);
const morgan = require(“morgan”);
const { createProxyMiddleware} = require(‘-proxy-middleware’);
Now we can create a basic express server and define some constants which we will use later:
// Create Express Server
const app = express();
// Configuration
const PORT = 3000;
const HOST = “localhost”;
const API_SERVICE_URL = “;
Before we implement the proxy logic, we can add the morgan middleware which logs the incoming requests:
// Logging
To be able to test that we proxy only what we want, let’s add a mock /info endpoint which doesn’t forward the request, but rather returns a simple text response:
// Info GET endpoint
(‘/info’, (req, res, next) => {
(‘This is a proxy service which proxies to Billing and Account APIs. ‘);});
Before defining the proxy endpoints, let’s also add a simple authorization/permission handling middleware which sends 403 (Forbidden) if the Authorization Header is missing:
// Authorization
(”, (req, res, next) => {
if (thorization) {
next();} else {
Then we define the proxy endpoint. We want to proxy all requests starting with /json_placeholder to the notorious JSONPlaceholder API (a simple mock API which contains multiple endpoints supporting all HTTP methods). We also define a pathRewrite so that /json_placeholder is omitted when forwarded to the API:
// Proxy endpoints
(‘/json_placeholder’, createProxyMiddleware({
changeOrigin: true,
pathRewrite: {
[`^/json_placeholder`]: ”, }, }));
This way, when we, for example, send a request to localhost:3000/json_placeholder/posts/1, the URL will be rewritten to /posts/1 (in this case:), thus removing /json_placeholder which the API doesn’t need.
And, last but not least, we start the configured server with this function call:
// Start the Proxy
(PORT, HOST, () => {
(`Starting Proxy at ${HOST}:${PORT}`);});
Run the proxy
Let’s start the proxy with the following command:
This prints something along the lines of:
yarn run v1. 22. 4
$ node
[HPM] Proxy created: / -> [HPM] Proxy rewrite rule created: “^/json_placeholder” ~> “”
Starting Proxy at localhost:3000
The proxy should now be running and if we open a second terminal and send a GET request to the /info:
We should receive a response from our proxy. And, unsurprisingly, we get:
This is a proxy service which proxies to JSONPlaceholder API.
Okay, this is great and all, but we don’t want some boring GET endpoints, we want to proxy!
In order to test the proxying, we can send a new GET request like this:
curl localhost:3000/json_placeholder/posts/1
Oh, no! This returns:
Fear not, this is expected because we included the authorization middleware which requires that every request contains an Authorization Header. So, make this small modification (you can even change it to your name because due to the simplicity of our authorization step, every name would work! ):
curl -H “Authorization: nikolay” localhost:3000/json_placeholder/posts/1
This gives us:
“userId”: 1,
“id”: 1,
“title”: “sunt aut facere repellat provident occaecati excepturi optio reprehenderit”,
“body”: “quia et suscipit\nsuscipit recusandae consequuntur expedita et cum\nreprehenderit molestiae ut ut quas totam\nnostrum rerum est autem sunt rem eveniet architecto”}
Hooray! Your first successfully proxied request! We can even try this with a POST request:
curl -X POST -H “Authorization: real_user” –data ‘{“title”: “Build a Proxy Server in Under 10 minutes! “, “body”: “We have all heard the term “proxy”… “, userId=”1”}’ localhost:3000/json_placeholder/posts
The POST request works as expected:
“{\”title\””: \””Build a Proxy Server in Under 10 minutes! \””

Frequently Asked Questions about nodejs request proxy

userId””: “”\””1\””}””

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