• January 31, 2023

Python Request Object

Python requests.Response Object - W3Schools

Python requests.Response Object – W3Schools

❮ Requests Module
Example
Make a request to a web page, and return the status code:
import requestsx = (”)print(atus_code)
Run Example »
Definition and Usage
The sponse() Object contains the server’s response to the HTTP request.
Properties and Methods
Property/Method
Description
apparent_encoding
Try it
Returns the apparent encoding
close()
Closes the connection to the server
content
Returns the content of the response, in bytes
cookies
Returns a CookieJar object with the cookies sent back from the server
elapsed
Returns a timedelta object with the time elapsed from sending the request to the arrival of the response
encoding
Returns the encoding used to decode
headers
Returns a dictionary of response headers
history
Returns a list of response objects holding the history of request (url)
is_permanent_redirect
Returns True if the response is the permanent redirected url, otherwise False
is_redirect
Returns True if the response was redirected, otherwise False
iter_content()
Iterates over the response
iter_lines()
Iterates over the lines of the response
json()
Returns a JSON object of the result (if the result was written in JSON format, if not it raises an error)
links
Returns the header links
next
Returns a PreparedRequest object for the next request in a redirection
ok
Returns True if status_code is less than 400, otherwise False
raise_for_status()
If an error occur, this method returns a HTTPError object
reason
Returns a text corresponding to the status code
request
Returns the request object that requested this response
status_code
Returns a number that indicates the status (200 is OK, 404 is Not Found)
text
Returns the content of the response, in unicode
url
Returns the URL of the response
❮ Requests Module
Developer Interface — Requests 2.26.0 documentation

Developer Interface — Requests 2.26.0 documentation

This part of the documentation covers all the interfaces of Requests. For
parts where Requests depends on external libraries, we document the most
important right here and provide links to the canonical documentation.
Main Interface¶
All of Requests’ functionality can be accessed by these 7 methods.
They all return an instance of the Response object.
quest(method, url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Constructs and sends a Request.
Parameters:
method – method for the new Request object: GET, OPTIONS, HEAD, POST, PUT, PATCH, or DELETE.
url – URL for the new Request object.
params – (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
in the query string for the Request.
data – (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
object to send in the body of the Request.
json – (optional) A JSON serializable Python object to send in the body of the Request.
headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘name’: file-like-objects (or {‘name’: file-tuple}) for multipart encoding upload.
file-tuple can be a 2-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj), 3-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’)
or a 4-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’, custom_headers), where ‘content-type’ is a string
defining the content type of the given file and custom_headers a dict-like object containing additional headers
to add for the file.
auth – (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
timeout (float or tuple) – (optional) How many seconds to wait for the server to send data
before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout, read
timeout) tuple.
allow_redirects (bool) – (optional) Boolean. Enable/disable GET/OPTIONS/POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE/HEAD redirection. Defaults to True.
proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
verify – (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
the server’s TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True.
stream – (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
Returns:Response object
Return sponse
Usage:
>>> import requests
>>> req = quest(‘GET’, ”)
>>> req

(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a HEAD request.
**kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes. If
allow_redirects is not provided, it will be set to False (as
opposed to the default request behavior).
(url, params=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a GET request.
**kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a POST request.
json – (optional) json data to send in the body of the Request.
(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PUT request.
Sends a PATCH request.
Sends a DELETE request.
Exceptions¶
exception questException(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
There was an ambiguous exception that occurred while handling your
request.
exception nnectionError(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
A Connection error occurred.
exception TPError(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
An HTTP error occurred.
exception requests. URLRequired(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
A valid URL is required to make a request.
exception oManyRedirects(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Too many redirects.
exception nnectTimeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The request timed out while trying to connect to the remote server.
Requests that produced this error are safe to retry.
exception adTimeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The server did not send any data in the allotted amount of time.
exception requests. Timeout(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
The request timed out.
Catching this error will catch both
ConnectTimeout and
ReadTimeout errors.
Request Sessions¶
class ssion[source]¶
A Requests session.
Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration.
Basic Usage:
>>> s = ssion()
>>> (”)
Or as a context manager:
>>> with ssion() as s:… (”)
auth = None¶
Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to
Request.
cert = None¶
SSL client certificate default, if String, path to ssl client
cert file (). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
close()[source]¶
Closes all adapters and as such the session
cookies = None¶
A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this
session. By default it is a
RequestsCookieJar, but
may be any other okieJar compatible object.
delete(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.
get(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.
get_adapter(url)[source]¶
Returns the appropriate connection adapter for the given URL.
Return seAdapter
get_redirect_target(resp)¶
Receives a Response. Returns a redirect URI or None
head(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.
A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each
Request sent from this
Session.
hooks = None¶
Event-handling hooks.
max_redirects = None¶
Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this
limit, a TooManyRedirects exception is raised.
This defaults to, which is
30.
merge_environment_settings(url, proxies, stream, verify, cert)[source]¶
Check the environment and merge it with some settings.
Return type:dict
mount(prefix, adapter)[source]¶
Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.
Adapters are sorted in descending order by prefix length.
options(url, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.
params = None¶
Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each
Request. The dictionary values may be lists for
representing multivalued query parameters.
patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.
post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.
json – (optional) json to send in the body of the Request.
prepare_request(request)[source]¶
Constructs a PreparedRequest for
transmission and returns it. The PreparedRequest has settings
merged from the Request instance and those of the
Parameters:request – Request instance to prepare with this
session’s settings.
Return eparedRequest
proxies = None¶
Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy
(e. g. {‘’: ‘’, ‘: ‘’}) to
be used on each Request.
put(url, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.
rebuild_auth(prepared_request, response)¶
When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the
request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes
and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.
rebuild_method(prepared_request, response)¶
When being redirected we may want to change the method of the request
based on certain specs or browser behavior.
rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)¶
This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the
environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by
NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing
proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous
redirect).
This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where
necessary.
request(method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None)[source]¶
Constructs a Request, prepares it and sends it.
Returns Response object.
method – method for the new Request object.
params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query
string for the Request.
json – (optional) json to send in the body of the
headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the
cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the
files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘filename’: file-like-objects
for multipart encoding upload.
auth – (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable
Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
timeout (float or tuple) – (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
data before giving up, as a float, or a (connect timeout,
read timeout) tuple.
allow_redirects (bool) – (optional) Set to True by default.
proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and
hostname to the URL of the proxy.
stream – (optional) whether to immediately download the response
content. Defaults to False.
to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to True. When set to
False, requests will accept any TLS certificate presented by
the server, and will ignore hostname mismatches and/or expired
certificates, which will make your application vulnerable to
man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks. Setting verify to False
may be useful during local development or testing.
cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file ().
If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None, yield_requests=False, **adapter_kwargs)¶
Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses or Requests.
send(request, **kwargs)[source]¶
Send a given PreparedRequest.
should_strip_auth(old_url, new_url)¶
Decide whether Authorization header should be removed when redirecting
stream = None¶
Stream response content default.
trust_env = None¶
Trust environment settings for proxy configuration, default
authentication and similar.
verify = None¶
SSL Verification default.
Defaults to True, requiring requests to verify the TLS certificate at the
remote end.
If verify is set to False, requests will accept any TLS certificate
presented by the server, and will ignore hostname mismatches and/or
expired certificates, which will make your application vulnerable to
man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks.
Only set this to False for testing.
Lower-Level Classes¶
class quest(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)[source]¶
A user-created Request object.
Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.
method – HTTP method to use.
url – URL to send.
headers – dictionary of headers to send.
files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
data – the body to attach to the request. If a dictionary or
list of tuples [(key, value)] is provided, form-encoding will
take place.
json – json for the body to attach to the request (if files or data is not specified).
params – URL parameters to append to the URL. If a dictionary or
auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.
>>> epare()

deregister_hook(event, hook)¶
Deregister a previously registered hook.
Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.
prepare()[source]¶
Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.
register_hook(event, hook)¶
Properly register a hook.
class sponse[source]¶
The Response object, which contains a
server’s response to an HTTP request.
apparent_encoding¶
The apparent encoding, provided by the charset_normalizer or chardet libraries.
Releases the connection back to the pool. Once this method has been
called the underlying raw object must not be accessed again.
Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.
content¶
Content of the response, in bytes.
A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.
elapsed = None¶
The amount of time elapsed between sending the request
and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta).
This property specifically measures the time taken between sending
the first byte of the request and finishing parsing the headers. It
is therefore unaffected by consuming the response content or the
value of the stream keyword argument.
encoding = None¶
Encoding to decode with when accessing
Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers.
For example, headers[‘content-encoding’] will return the
value of a ‘Content-Encoding’ response header.
history = None¶
A list of Response objects from
the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end
up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.
is_permanent_redirect¶
True if this Response one of the permanent versions of redirect.
is_redirect¶
True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have
been processed automatically (by solve_redirects).
iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)[source]¶
Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the
request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for
large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should
read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item
returned as decoding can take place.
chunk_size must be of type int or None. A value of None will
function differently depending on the value of stream.
stream=True will read data as it arrives in whatever size the
chunks are received. If stream=False, data is returned as
a single chunk.
If decode_unicode is True, content will be decoded using the best
available encoding based on the response.
iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=False, delimiter=None)[source]¶
Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When
stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the
content at once into memory for large responses.
Note
This method is not reentrant safe.
json(**kwargs)[source]¶
Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.
Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that takes.
Raises:requests. exceptions. JSONDecodeError – If the response body does not
contain valid json.
links¶
Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.
next¶
Returns a PreparedRequest for the next request in a redirect chain, if there is one.
ok¶
Returns True if status_code is less than 400, False if not.
This attribute checks if the status code of the response is between
400 and 600 to see if there was a client error or a server error. If
the status code is between 200 and 400, this will return True. This
is not a check to see if the response code is 200 OK.
raise_for_status()[source]¶
Raises HTTPError, if one occurred.
raw = None¶
File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage).
Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.
This requirement does not apply for use internally to Requests.
reason = None¶
Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e. “Not Found” or “OK”.
request = None¶
The PreparedRequest object to which this
is a response.
status_code = None¶
Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e. 404 or 200.
text¶
Content of the response, in unicode.
If Response. encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using
charset_normalizer or chardet.
The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP
headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of
non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should
set r. encoding appropriately before accessing this property.
url = None¶
Final URL location of Response.
Lower-Lower-Level Classes¶
class eparedRequest[source]¶
The fully mutable PreparedRequest object,
containing the exact bytes that will be sent to the server.
Instances are generated from a Request object, and
should not be instantiated manually; doing so may produce undesirable
effects.
>>> r = epare()
>>> r
>>> (r)
body = None¶
request body to send to the server.
dictionary of HTTP headers.
dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.
method = None¶
HTTP verb to send to the server.
path_url¶
Build the path URL to use.
prepare(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None, json=None)[source]¶
Prepares the entire request with the given parameters.
prepare_auth(auth, url=”)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP auth data.
prepare_body(data, files, json=None)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP body data.
prepare_content_length(body)[source]¶
Prepare Content-Length header based on request method and body
prepare_cookies(cookies)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP cookie data.
This function eventually generates a Cookie header from the
given cookies using cookielib. Due to cookielib’s design, the header
will not be regenerated if it already exists, meaning this function
can only be called once for the life of the
PreparedRequest object. Any subsequent calls
to prepare_cookies will have no actual effect, unless the “Cookie”
header is removed beforehand.
Prepares the given HTTP headers.
prepare_hooks(hooks)[source]¶
Prepares the given hooks.
prepare_method(method)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP method.
prepare_url(url, params)[source]¶
Prepares the given HTTP URL.
HTTP URL to send the request to.
class seAdapter[source]¶
The Base Transport Adapter
Cleans up adapter specific items.
send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)[source]¶
Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.
request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
stream – (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
to a CA bundle to use
cert – (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
proxies – (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
class TPAdapter(pool_connections=10, pool_maxsize=10, max_retries=0, pool_block=False)[source]¶
The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.
Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and
HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will
usually be created by the Session class under the
covers.
pool_connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
pool_maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
max_retries – The maximum number of retries each connection
should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed DNS lookups, socket
connections and connection timeouts, never to requests where data has
made it to the server. By default, Requests does not retry failed
connections. If you need granular control over the conditions under
which we retry a request, import urllib3’s Retry class and pass
that instead.
pool_block – Whether the connection pool should block for connections.
>>> a = TPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> (”, a)
Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2. 0 this does
nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass
the HTTPAdapter.
This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use
when subclassing the
HTTPAdapter.
request – The PreparedRequest to add headers to.
kwargs – The keyword arguments from the call to send().
build_response(req, resp)[source]¶
Builds a Response object from a urllib3
response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed
for use when subclassing the
HTTPAdapter
req – The PreparedRequest used to generate the response.
resp – The urllib3 response object.
cert_verify(conn, url, verify, cert)[source]¶
Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user
code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
conn – The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
url – The requested URL.
verify – Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
cert – The SSL certificate to verify.
Disposes of any internal state.
Currently, this closes the PoolManager and any active ProxyManager,
which closes any pooled connections.
get_connection(url, proxies=None)[source]¶
Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be
called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
url – The URL to connect to.
proxies – (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
Return nnectionPool
init_poolmanager(connections, maxsize, block=False, **pool_kwargs)[source]¶
Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager.
This method should not be called from user code, and is only
exposed for use when subclassing the
connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
block – Block when no free connections are available.
pool_kwargs – Extra keyword arguments used to initialize the Pool Manager.
Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent
through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are
correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if
CONNECT is being used.
Parameters:proxy – The url of the proxy being used for this request.
proxy_manager_for(proxy, **proxy_kwargs)[source]¶
Return urllib3 ProxyManager for the given proxy.
proxy – The proxy to return a urllib3 ProxyManager for.
proxy_kwargs – Extra keyword arguments used to configure the Proxy Manager.
Returns:ProxyManager
Return oxyManager
request_url(request, proxies)[source]¶
Obtain the url to use when making the final request.
If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to
be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.
proxies – A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs.
Return type:str
timeout (float or tuple or urllib3 Timeout object) – (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
verify – (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether
we verify the server’s TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it
must be a path to a CA bundle to use
Authentication¶
class [source]¶
Base class that all auth implementations derive from
class (username, password)[source]¶
Attaches HTTP Basic Authentication to the given Request object.
Attaches HTTP Proxy Authentication to a given Request object.
Attaches HTTP Digest Authentication to the given Request object.
Encodings¶
(content)[source]¶
Returns encodings from given content string.
Parameters:content – bytestring to extract encodings from.
Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict.
Parameters:headers – dictionary to extract encoding from.
(r)[source]¶
Returns the requested content back in unicode.
Parameters:r – Response object to get unicode content from.
Tried:
charset from content-type
fall back and replace all unicode characters
Cookies¶
(cj)[source]¶
Returns a key/value dictionary from a CookieJar.
Parameters:cj – CookieJar object to extract cookies from.
(cj, cookie_dict)[source]¶
Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.
cj – CookieJar to insert cookies into.
cookie_dict – Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.
Return type:CookieJar
okiejar_from_dict(cookie_dict, cookiejar=None, overwrite=True)[source]¶
cookiejar – (optional) A cookiejar to add the cookies to.
overwrite – (optional) If False, will not replace cookies
already in the jar with new ones.
class questsCookieJar(policy=None)[source]¶
Compatibility class; is a okieJar, but exposes a dict
interface.
This is the CookieJar we create by default for requests and sessions that
don’t specify one, since some clients may expect okies and
okies to support dict operations.
Requests does not use the dict interface internally; it’s just for
compatibility with external client code. All requests code should work
out of the box with externally provided instances of CookieJar, e. g.
LWPCookieJar and FileCookieJar.
Unlike a regular CookieJar, this class is pickleable.
Warning
dictionary operations that are normally O(1) may be O(n).
Add correct Cookie: header to request (quest object).
The Cookie2 header is also added unless policy. hide_cookie2 is true.
clear(domain=None, path=None, name=None)¶
Clear some cookies.
Invoking this method without arguments will clear all cookies. If
given a single argument, only cookies belonging to that domain will be
removed. If given two arguments, cookies belonging to the specified
path within that domain are removed. If given three arguments, then
the cookie with the specified name, path and domain is removed.
Raises KeyError if no matching cookie exists.
clear_expired_cookies()¶
Discard all expired cookies.
You probably don’t need to call this method: expired cookies are never
sent back to the server (provided you’re using DefaultCookiePolicy),
this method is called by CookieJar itself every so often, and the
() method won’t save expired cookies anyway (unless you ask
otherwise by passing a true ignore_expires argument).
clear_session_cookies()¶
Discard all session cookies.
Note that the () method won’t save session cookies anyway, unless
you ask otherwise by passing a true ignore_discard argument.
copy()[source]¶
Return a copy of this RequestsCookieJar.
Extract cookies from response, where allowable given the request.
get(name, default=None, domain=None, path=None)[source]¶
Dict-like get() that also supports optional domain and path args in
order to resolve naming collisions from using one cookie jar over
multiple domains.
operation is O(n), not O(1).
get_dict(domain=None, path=None)[source]¶
Takes as an argument an optional domain and path and returns a plain
old Python dict of name-value pairs of cookies that meet the
requirements.
get_policy()[source]¶
Return the CookiePolicy instance used.
items()[source]¶
Dict-like items() that returns a list of name-value tuples from the
jar. Allows client-code to call dict(RequestsCookieJar) and get a
vanilla python dict of key value pairs.
See also
keys() and values().
iteritems()[source]¶
Dict-like iteritems() that returns an iterator of name-value tuples
from the jar.
iterkeys() and itervalues().
iterkeys()[source]¶
Dict-like iterkeys() that returns an iterator of names of cookies
itervalues() and iteritems().
itervalues()[source]¶
Dict-like itervalues() that returns an iterator of values of cookies
iterkeys() and iteritems().
keys()[source]¶
Dict-like keys() that returns a list of names of cookies from the
jar.
values() and items().
list_domains()[source]¶
Utility method to list all the domains in the jar.
list_paths()[source]¶
Utility method to list all the paths in the jar.
make_cookies(response, request)¶
Return sequence of Cookie objects extracted from response object.
multiple_domains()[source]¶
Returns True if there are multiple domains in the jar.
Returns False otherwise.
Return type:bool
pop(k[, d]) → v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value. ¶
If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised.
popitem() → (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair¶
as a 2-tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty.
set(name, value, **kwargs)[source]¶
Dict-like set() that also supports optional domain and path args in
set_cookie(cookie, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Set a cookie, without checking whether or not it should be set.
set_cookie_if_ok(cookie, request)¶
Set a cookie if policy says it’s OK to do so.
setdefault(k[, d]) → (k, d), also set D[k]=d if k not in D¶
update(other)[source]¶
Updates this jar with cookies from another CookieJar or dict-like
values()[source]¶
Dict-like values() that returns a list of values of cookies from the
keys() and items().
class okieConflictError[source]¶
There are two cookies that meet the criteria specified in the cookie jar.
Use and and include domain and path args in order to be more specific.
Status Code Lookup¶

The codes object defines a mapping from common names for HTTP statuses
to their numerical codes, accessible either as attributes or as dictionary
items.
Example:
>>> [‘temporary_redirect’]
307
>>>
418
>>> [‘\o/’]
200
Some codes have multiple names, and both upper- and lower-case versions of
the names are allowed. For example,,, and
all correspond to the HTTP status code 200.
100: continue
101: switching_protocols
102: processing
103: checkpoint
122: uri_too_long, request_uri_too_long
200: ok, okay, all_ok, all_okay, all_good, \o/, ✓
201: created
202: accepted
203: non_authoritative_info, non_authoritative_information
204: no_content
205: reset_content, reset
206: partial_content, partial
207: multi_status, multiple_status, multi_stati, multiple_stati
208: already_reported
226: im_used
300: multiple_choices
301: moved_permanently, moved, \o-
302: found
303: see_other, other
304: not_modified
305: use_proxy
306: switch_proxy
307: temporary_redirect, temporary_moved, temporary
308: permanent_redirect, resume_incomplete, resume
400: bad_request, bad
401: unauthorized
402: payment_required, payment
403: forbidden
404: not_found, -o-
405: method_not_allowed, not_allowed
406: not_acceptable
407: proxy_authentication_required, proxy_auth, proxy_authentication
408: request_timeout, timeout
409: conflict
410: gone
411: length_required
412: precondition_failed, precondition
413: request_entity_too_large
414: request_uri_too_large
415: unsupported_media_type, unsupported_media, media_type
416: requested_range_not_satisfiable, requested_range, range_not_satisfiable
417: expectation_failed
418: im_a_teapot, teapot, i_am_a_teapot
421: misdirected_request
422: unprocessable_entity, unprocessable
423: locked
424: failed_dependency, dependency
425: unordered_collection, unordered
426: upgrade_required, upgrade
428: precondition_required, precondition
429: too_many_requests, too_many
431: header_fields_too_large, fields_too_large
444: no_response, none
449: retry_with, retry
450: blocked_by_windows_parental_controls, parental_controls
451: unavailable_for_legal_reasons, legal_reasons
499: client_closed_request
500: internal_server_error, server_error, /o\, ✗
501: not_implemented
502: bad_gateway
503: service_unavailable, unavailable
504: gateway_timeout
505: _version_not_supported, _version
506: variant_also_negotiates
507: insufficient_storage
509: bandwidth_limit_exceeded, bandwidth
510: not_extended
511: network_authentication_required, network_auth, network_authentication
Migrating to 1. x¶
This section details the main differences between 0. x and 1. x and is meant
to ease the pain of upgrading.
API Changes¶
is now a callable and not a property of a response.
import requests
r = (”)
() # This *call* raises an exception if JSON decoding fails
The Session API has changed. Sessions objects no longer take parameters.
Session is also now capitalized, but it can still be
instantiated with a lowercase session for backwards compatibility.
s = ssion() # formerly, session took parameters
= auth
s. (headers)
All request hooks have been removed except ‘response’.
Authentication helpers have been broken out into separate modules. See
requests-oauthlib and requests-kerberos.
The parameter for streaming requests was changed from prefetch to
stream and the logic was inverted. In addition, stream is now
required for raw response reading.
# in 0. x, passing prefetch=False would accomplish the same thing
r = (”, stream=True)
for chunk in er_content(8192):…
The config parameter to the requests method has been removed. Some of
these options are now configured on a Session such as keep-alive and
maximum number of redirects. The verbosity option should be handled by
configuring logging.
import logging
# Enabling debugging at level (requests->urllib3->)
# you will see the REQUEST, including HEADERS and DATA, and RESPONSE with HEADERS but without DATA.
# the only thing missing will be the which is not logged.
try: # for Python 3
from import HTTPConnection
except ImportError:
from lib import HTTPConnection
buglevel = 1
sicConfig() # you need to initialize logging, otherwise you will not see anything from requests
tLogger(). setLevel()
requests_log = tLogger(“urllib3″)
tLevel()
opagate = True
(”)
Licensing¶
One key difference that has nothing to do with the API is a change in the
license from the ISC license to the Apache 2. 0 license. The Apache 2. 0
license ensures that contributions to Requests are also covered by the Apache
2. 0 license.
Migrating to 2. x¶
Compared with the 1. 0 release, there were relatively few backwards
incompatible changes, but there are still a few issues to be aware of with
this major release.
For more details on the changes in this release including new APIs, links
to the relevant GitHub issues and some of the bug fixes, read Cory’s blog
on the subject.
There were a couple changes to how Requests handles exceptions.
RequestException is now a subclass of IOError rather t
Python's Requests Library (Guide)

Python’s Requests Library (Guide)

Watch Now This tutorial has a related video course created by the Real Python team. Watch it together with the written tutorial to deepen your understanding: Making HTTP Requests With Python
The requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. It abstracts the complexities of making requests behind a beautiful, simple API so that you can focus on interacting with services and consuming data in your application.
Throughout this article, you’ll see some of the most useful features that requests has to offer as well as how to customize and optimize those features for different situations you may come across. You’ll also learn how to use requests in an efficient way as well as how to prevent requests to external services from slowing down your application.
In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to:
Make requests using the most common HTTP methods
Customize your requests’ headers and data, using the query string and message body
Inspect data from your requests and responses
Make authenticated requests
Configure your requests to help prevent your application from backing up or slowing down
Though I’ve tried to include as much information as you need to understand the features and examples included in this article, I do assume a very basic general knowledge of HTTP. That said, you still may be able to follow along fine anyway.
Now that that is out of the way, let’s dive in and see how you can use requests in your application!
Getting Started With requests
Let’s begin by installing the requests library. To do so, run the following command:
If you prefer to use Pipenv for managing Python packages, you can run the following:
$ pipenv install requests
Once requests is installed, you can use it in your application. Importing requests looks like this:
Now that you’re all set up, it’s time to begin your journey through requests. Your first goal will be learning how to make a GET request.
The GET Request
HTTP methods such as GET and POST, determine which action you’re trying to perform when making an HTTP request. Besides GET and POST, there are several other common methods that you’ll use later in this tutorial.
One of the most common HTTP methods is GET. The GET method indicates that you’re trying to get or retrieve data from a specified resource. To make a GET request, invoke ().
To test this out, you can make a GET request to GitHub’s Root REST API by calling get() with the following URL:
>>>>>> (”)

Congratulations! You’ve made your first request. Let’s dive a little deeper into the response of that request.
The Response
A Response is a powerful object for inspecting the results of the request. Let’s make that same request again, but this time store the return value in a variable so that you can get a closer look at its attributes and behaviors:
>>>>>> response = (”)
In this example, you’ve captured the return value of get(), which is an instance of Response, and stored it in a variable called response. You can now use response to see a lot of information about the results of your GET request.
Status Codes
The first bit of information that you can gather from Response is the status code. A status code informs you of the status of the request.
For example, a 200 OK status means that your request was successful, whereas a 404 NOT FOUND status means that the resource you were looking for was not found. There are many other possible status codes as well to give you specific insights into what happened with your request.
By accessing. status_code, you can see the status code that the server returned:
>>>>>> atus_code
200. status_code returned a 200, which means your request was successful and the server responded with the data you were requesting.
Sometimes, you might want to use this information to make decisions in your code:
if atus_code == 200:
print(‘Success! ‘)
elif atus_code == 404:
print(‘Not Found. ‘)
With this logic, if the server returns a 200 status code, your program will print Success!. If the result is a 404, your program will print Not Found.
requests goes one step further in simplifying this process for you. If you use a Response instance in a conditional expression, it will evaluate to True if the status code was between 200 and 400, and False otherwise.
Therefore, you can simplify the last example by rewriting the if statement:
if response:
else:
print(‘An error has occurred. ‘)
Keep in mind that this method is not verifying that the status code is equal to 200. The reason for this is that other status codes within the 200 to 400 range, such as 204 NO CONTENT and 304 NOT MODIFIED, are also considered successful in the sense that they provide some workable response.
For example, the 204 tells you that the response was successful, but there’s no content to return in the message body.
So, make sure you use this convenient shorthand only if you want to know if the request was generally successful and then, if necessary, handle the response appropriately based on the status code.
Let’s say you don’t want to check the response’s status code in an if statement. Instead, you want to raise an exception if the request was unsuccessful. You can do this using. raise_for_status():
import requests
from requests. exceptions import HTTPError
for url in [”, ”]:
try:
response = (url)
# If the response was successful, no Exception will be raised
response. raise_for_status()
except HTTPError as _err:
print(f’HTTP error occurred: {_err}’) # Python 3. 6
except Exception as err:
print(f’Other error occurred: {err}’) # Python 3. 6
If you invoke. raise_for_status(), an HTTPError will be raised for certain status codes. If the status code indicates a successful request, the program will proceed without that exception being raised.
Now, you know a lot about how to deal with the status code of the response you got back from the server. However, when you make a GET request, you rarely only care about the status code of the response. Usually, you want to see more. Next, you’ll see how to view the actual data that the server sent back in the body of the response.
Content
The response of a GET request often has some valuable information, known as a payload, in the message body. Using the attributes and methods of Response, you can view the payload in a variety of different formats.
To see the response’s content in bytes, you use. content:
>>> ntent
b'{“current_user_url”:”, “current_user_authorizations_html_url”:”/client_id}”, “authorizations_url”:”, “code_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “commit_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “emails_url”:”, “emojis_url”:”, “events_url”:”, “feeds_url”:”, “followers_url”:”, “following_url”:”/target}”, “gists_url”:”/gist_id}”, “hub_url”:”, “issue_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “issues_url”:”, “keys_url”:”, “notifications_url”:”, “organization_repositories_url”:”org}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “organization_url”:”org}”, “public_gists_url”:”, “rate_limit_url”:”, “repository_url”:”owner}/{repo}”, “repository_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “current_user_repositories_url”:”? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “starred_url”:”/owner}{/repo}”, “starred_gists_url”:”, “team_url”:”, “user_url”:”user}”, “user_organizations_url”:”, “user_repositories_url”:”user}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “user_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”}’
While. content gives you access to the raw bytes of the response payload, you will often want to convert them into a string using a character encoding such as UTF-8. response will do that for you when you access
>>>>>>
‘{“current_user_url”:”, “current_user_authorizations_html_url”:”/client_id}”, “authorizations_url”:”, “code_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “commit_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “emails_url”:”, “emojis_url”:”, “events_url”:”, “feeds_url”:”, “followers_url”:”, “following_url”:”/target}”, “gists_url”:”/gist_id}”, “hub_url”:”, “issue_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “issues_url”:”, “keys_url”:”, “notifications_url”:”, “organization_repositories_url”:”org}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “organization_url”:”org}”, “public_gists_url”:”, “rate_limit_url”:”, “repository_url”:”owner}/{repo}”, “repository_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”, “current_user_repositories_url”:”? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “starred_url”:”/owner}{/repo}”, “starred_gists_url”:”, “team_url”:”, “user_url”:”user}”, “user_organizations_url”:”, “user_repositories_url”:”user}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}”, “user_search_url”:”query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}”}’
Because the decoding of bytes to a str requires an encoding scheme, requests will try to guess the encoding based on the response’s headers if you do not specify one. You can provide an explicit encoding by setting. encoding before accessing
>>>>>> response. encoding = ‘utf-8’ # Optional: requests infers this internally
>>>
If you take a look at the response, you’ll see that it is actually serialized JSON content. To get a dictionary, you could take the str you retrieved from and deserialize it using (). However, a simpler way to accomplish this task is to use ():
>>>>>> ()
{‘current_user_url’: ”, ‘current_user_authorizations_html_url’: ‘/client_id}’, ‘authorizations_url’: ”, ‘code_search_url’: ‘query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}’, ‘commit_search_url’: ‘query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}’, ’emails_url’: ”, ’emojis_url’: ”, ‘events_url’: ”, ‘feeds_url’: ”, ‘followers_url’: ”, ‘following_url’: ‘/target}’, ‘gists_url’: ‘/gist_id}’, ‘hub_url’: ”, ‘issue_search_url’: ‘query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}’, ‘issues_url’: ”, ‘keys_url’: ”, ‘notifications_url’: ”, ‘organization_repositories_url’: ‘org}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}’, ‘organization_url’: ‘org}’, ‘public_gists_url’: ”, ‘rate_limit_url’: ”, ‘repository_url’: ‘owner}/{repo}’, ‘repository_search_url’: ‘query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}’, ‘current_user_repositories_url’: ‘? type, page, per_page, sort}’, ‘starred_url’: ‘/owner}{/repo}’, ‘starred_gists_url’: ”, ‘team_url’: ”, ‘user_url’: ‘user}’, ‘user_organizations_url’: ”, ‘user_repositories_url’: ‘user}/repos{? type, page, per_page, sort}’, ‘user_search_url’: ‘query}{&page, per_page, sort, order}’}
The type of the return value of () is a dictionary, so you can access values in the object by key.
You can do a lot with status codes and message bodies. But, if you need more information, like metadata about the response itself, you’ll need to look at the response’s headers.
Query String Parameters
One common way to customize a GET request is to pass values through query string parameters in the URL. To do this using get(), you pass data to params. For example, you can use GitHub’s Search API to look for the requests library:
# Search GitHub’s repositories for requests
response = (
”,
params={‘q’: ‘requests+language:python’}, )
# Inspect some attributes of the `requests` repository
json_response = ()
repository = json_response[‘items’][0]
print(f’Repository name: {repository[“name”]}’) # Python 3. 6+
print(f’Repository description: {repository[“description”]}’) # Python 3. 6+
By passing the dictionary {‘q’: ‘requests+language:python’} to the params parameter of (), you are able to modify the results that come back from the Search API.
You can pass params to get() in the form of a dictionary, as you have just done, or as a list of tuples:
>>>>>> (… ”,… params=[(‘q’, ‘requests+language:python’)],… )
You can even pass the values as bytes:
>>>>>> (… params=b’q=requests+language:python’,… )
Query strings are useful for parameterizing GET requests. You can also customize your requests by adding or modifying the headers you send.
Other HTTP Methods
Aside from GET, other popular HTTP methods include POST, PUT, DELETE, HEAD, PATCH, and OPTIONS. requests provides a method, with a similar signature to get(), for each of these HTTP methods:
>>>>>> (”, data={‘key’:’value’})
>>> (”, data={‘key’:’value’})
>>> (”)
>>> requests. options(”)
Each function call makes a request to the bin service using the corresponding HTTP method. For each method, you can inspect their responses in the same way you did before:
>>> response. headers[‘Content-Type’]
‘application/json’
>>> response = (”)
>>> json_response = ()
>>> json_response[‘args’]
{}
Headers, response bodies, status codes, and more are returned in the Response for each method. Next you’ll take a closer look at the POST, PUT, and PATCH methods and learn how they differ from the other request types.
The Message Body
According to the HTTP specification, POST, PUT, and the less common PATCH requests pass their data through the message body rather than through parameters in the query string. Using requests, you’ll pass the payload to the corresponding function’s data parameter.
data takes a dictionary, a list of tuples, bytes, or a file-like object. You’ll want to adapt the data you send in the body of your request to the specific needs of the service you’re interacting with.
For example, if your request’s content type is application/x-www-form-urlencoded, you can send the form data as a dictionary:
You can also send that same data as a list of tuples:
>>>>>> (”, data=[(‘key’, ‘value’)])
If, however, you need to send JSON data, you can use the json parameter. When you pass JSON data via json, requests will serialize your data and add the correct Content-Type header for you.
is a great resource created by the author of requests, Kenneth Reitz. It’s a service that accepts test requests and responds with data about the requests. For instance, you can use it to inspect a basic POST request:
>>>>>> response = (”, json={‘key’:’value’})
>>> json_response[‘data’]
‘{“key”: “value”}’
>>> json_response[‘headers’][‘Content-Type’]
You can see from the response that the server received your request data and headers as you sent them. requests also provides this information to you in the form of a PreparedRequest.
Inspecting Your Request
When you make a request, the requests library prepares the request before actually sending it to the destination server. Request preparation includes things like validating headers and serializing JSON content.
You can view the PreparedRequest by accessing. request:
>>> quest. headers[‘Content-Type’]

b'{“key”: “value”}’
Inspecting the PreparedRequest gives you access to all kinds of information about the request being made such as payload, URL, headers, authentication, and more.
So far, you’ve made a lot of different kinds of requests, but they’ve all had one thing in common: they’re unauthenticated requests to public APIs. Many services you may come across will want you to authenticate in some way.
Authentication
Authentication helps a service understand who you are. Typically, you provide your credentials to a server by passing data through the Authorization header or a custom header defined by the service. All the request functions you’ve seen to this point provide a parameter called auth, which allows you to pass your credentials.
One example of an API that requires authentication is GitHub’s Authenticated User API. This endpoint provides information about the authenticated user’s profile. To make a request to the Authenticated User API, you can pass your GitHub username and password in a tuple to get():
>>>>>> from getpass import getpass
>>> (”, auth=(‘username’, getpass()))
The request succeeded if the credentials you passed in the tuple to auth are valid. If you try to make this request with no credentials, you’ll see that the status code is 401 Unauthorized:

When you pass your username and password in a tuple to the auth parameter, requests is applying the credentials using HTTP’s Basic access authentication scheme under the hood.
Therefore, you could make the same request by passing explicit Basic authentication credentials using HTTPBasicAuth:
>>>>>> from import HTTPBasicAuth
>>> from getpass import getpass
>>> (… auth=HTTPBasicAuth(‘username’, getpass())… )
Though you don’t need to be explicit for Basic authentication, you may want to authenticate using another method. requests provides other methods of authentication out of the box such as HTTPDigestAuth and HTTPProxyAuth.
You can even supply your own authentication mechanism. To do so, you must first create a subclass of AuthBase. Then, you implement __call__():
from import AuthBase
class TokenAuth(AuthBase):
“””Implements a custom authentication scheme. “””
def __init__(self, token):
= token
def __call__(self, r):
“””Attach an API token to a custom auth header. “””
r. headers[‘X-TokenAuth’] = f'{}’ # Python 3. 6+
return r
(”, auth=TokenAuth(‘12345abcde-token’))
Here, your custom TokenAuth mechanism receives a token, then includes that token in the X-TokenAuth header of your request.
Bad authentication mechanisms can lead to security vulnerabilities, so unless a service requires a custom authentication mechanism for some reason, you’ll always want to use a tried-and-true auth scheme like Basic or OAuth.
While you’re thinking about security, let’s consider dealing with SSL Certificates using requests.
SSL Certificate Verification
Any time the data you are trying to send or receive is sensitive, security is important. The way that you communicate with secure sites over HTTP is by establishing an encrypted connection using SSL, which means that verifying the target server’s SSL Certificate is critical.
The good news is that requests does this for you by default. However, there are some cases where you might want to change this behavior.
If you want to disable SSL Certificate verification, you pass False to the verify parameter of the request function:
>>>>>> (”, verify=False)
InsecureRequestWarning: Unverified HTTPS request is being made. Adding certificate verification is strongly advised. See: InsecureRequestWarning)
requests even warns you when you’re making an insecure request to help you keep your data safe!
Performance
When using requests, especially in a production application environment, it’s important to consider performance implications. Features like timeout control, sessions, and retry limits can help you keep your application running smoothly.
Timeouts
When you make an inline request to an external service, your system will need to wait upon the response before moving on. If your application waits too long for that response, requests to your service could back up, your user experience could suffer, or your background jobs could hang.
By default, requests will wait indefinitely on the response, so you should almost always specify a timeout duration to prevent these things from happening. To set the request’s timeout, use the timeout parameter. timeout can be an integer or float representing the number of seconds to wait on a response before timing out:
>>>>>> (”, timeout=1)
>>> (”, timeout=3. 05)
In the first request, the request will timeout after 1 second. In the second request, the request will timeout after 3. 05 seconds.
You can also pass a tuple to timeout with the first element being a connect timeout (the time it allows for the client to establish a connection to the server), and the second being a read timeout (the time it will wait on a response once your client has established a connection):
>>>>>> (”, timeout=(2, 5))
If the request establishes a connection within 2 seconds and receives data within 5 seconds of the connection being established, then the response will be returned as it was before. If the request times out, then the function will raise a Timeout exception:
from requests. exceptions import Timeout
response = (”, timeout=1)
except Timeout:
print(‘The request timed out’)
print(‘The request did not time out’)
Your program can catch the Timeout exception and respond accordingly.
The Session Object
Until now, you’ve been dealing with high level requests APIs such as get() and post(). These functions are abstractions of what’s going on when you make your requests. They hide implementation details such as how connections are managed so that you don’t have to worry about them.
Underneath those abstractions is a class called Session. If you need to fine-tune your control over how requests are being made or improve the performance of your requests, you may need to use a Session instance directly.
Sessions are used to persist parameters across requests. For example, if you want to use the same authentication across multiple requests, you could use a session:
from getpass import getpass
# By using a context manager, you can ensure the resources used by
# the session will be released after use
with ssion() as session:
= (‘username’, getpass())
# Instead of (), you’ll use ()
response = (”)
# You can inspect the response just like you did before
print(response. headers)
print(())
Each time you make a request with session, once it has been initialized with authentication credentials, the credentials will be persisted.
The primary performance optimization of sessions comes in the form of persistent connections. When your app makes a connection to a server using a Session, it keeps that connection around in a connection pool. When your app wants to connect to the same server again, it will reuse a connection from the pool rather than establishing a new one.
Max Retries
When a request fails, you may want your application to retry the same request. However, requests will not do this for you by default. To apply this functionality, you need to implement a custom Transport Adapter.
Transport Adapters let you define a set of configurations per service you’re interacting with. For example, let’s say you want all requests to to retry three times before finally raising a ConnectionError. You would build a Transport Adapter, set its max_retries parameter, and mount it to an existing Session:
from apters import HTTPAdapter
from requests. exceptions import ConnectionError
github_adapter = HTTPAdapter(max_retries=3)
session = ssion()
# Use `github_adapter` for all requests to endpoints that start with this URL
(”, github_adapter)
(”)
except ConnectionError as ce:
print(ce)
When you mount the HTTPAdapter, github_adapter, to session, session will adhere to its configuration for each request to Timeouts, Transport Adapters, and sessions are for keeping your code efficient and your application resilient.
Conclusion
You’ve come a long way in learning about Python’s powerful requests library.
You’re now able to:
Make requests using a variety of different HTTP methods such as GET, POST, and PUT
Customize your requests by modifying headers, authentication, query strings, and message bodies
Inspect the data you send to the server and the data the server sends back to you
Work with SSL Certificate verification
Use requests effectively using max_retries, timeout, Sessions, and Transport Adapters
Because you learned how to use requests, you’re equipped to explore the wide world of web services and build awesome applications using the fascinating data they provide.
Watch Now This tutorial has a related video course created by the Real Python team. Watch it together with the written tutorial to deepen your understanding: Making HTTP Requests With Python

Frequently Asked Questions about python request object

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