How Is Ipv6 Different From Ipv4
What’s the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6? – Guru99
What is IP?
An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the IP protocol for communication. An IP address acts as an identifier for a specific device on a particular network. The IP address is also called an IP number or Internet address.
IP address specifies the technical format of the addressing and packets scheme. Most networks combine IP with a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). It also allows developing a virtual connection between a destination and a source.
Now in this IPv4 and IPv6 difference tutorial, we will learn What is IPv4 and IPv6?
What is IPv4?
IPv4 is an IP version widely used to identify devices on a network using an addressing system. It was the first version of IP deployed for production in the ARPANET in 1983. It uses a 32-bit address scheme to store 2^32 addresses which is more than 4 billion addresses. It is considered the primary Internet Protocol and carries 94% of Internet traffic.
What is IPv6?
IPv6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol. This new IP address version is being deployed to fulfill the need for more Internet addresses. It was aimed to resolve issues that are associated with IPv4. With 128-bit address space, it allows 340 undecillion unique address space. IPv6 is also called IPng (Internet Protocol next generation).
Internet Engineer Taskforce initiated it in early 1994. The design and development of that suite are now called IPv6.
IPv4 is 32-Bit IP address whereas IPv6 is a 128-Bit IP address.
IPv4 is a numeric addressing method whereas IPv6 is an alphanumeric addressing method.
IPv4 binary bits are separated by a dot(. ) whereas IPv6 binary bits are separated by a colon(:).
IPv4 offers 12 header fields whereas IPv6 offers 8 header fields.
IPv4 supports broadcast whereas IPv6 doesn’t support broadcast.
IPv4 has checksum fields while IPv6 doesn’t have checksum fields
When we compare IPv4 and IPv6, IPv4 supports VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) whereas IPv6 doesn’t support VLSM.
IPv4 uses ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) to map to MAC address whereas IPv6 uses NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol) to map to MAC address.
Features of IPv4
Following are the features of IPv4:
Allow creating a simple virtual communication layer over diversified devices
It requires less memory, and ease of remembering addresses
Already supported protocol by millions of devices
Offers video libraries and conferences
Features of IPv6
Here are the features of IPv6:
Hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure
Stateful and Stateless configuration
Support for quality of service (QoS)
An ideal protocol for neighboring node interaction
IPv4 vs IPv6
Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses
IPv4 & IPv6 are both IP addresses that are binary numbers. Comparing IPv6 vs IPv4, IPv4 is 32 bit binary number while IPv6 is 128 bit binary number address. IPv4 address are separated by periods while IPv6 address are separated by colons.
Both are used to identify machines connected to a network. In principle, they are the same, but they are different in how they work. Below are the main differences between IPv4 and IPv6:
Basis for differences
Size of IP address
IPv4 is a 32-Bit IP Address.
IPv6 is 128 Bit IP Address.
IPv4 is a numeric address, and its binary bits are separated by a dot (. )
IPv6 is an alphanumeric address whose binary bits are separated by a colon (:). It also contains hexadecimal.
Number of header fields
Length of header filed
Has checksum fields
Does not have checksum fields
12. 244. 233. 165
Type of Addresses
Unicast, broadcast, and multicast.
Unicast, multicast, and anycast.
Number of classes
IPv4 offers five different classes of IP Address. Class A to E.
lPv6 allows storing an unlimited number of IP Address.
You have to configure a newly installed system before it can communicate with other systems.
In IPv6, the configuration is optional, depending upon on functions needed.
IPv4 support VLSM (Variable Length Subnet mask).
IPv6 does not offer support for VLSM.
Fragmentation is done by sending and forwarding routes.
Fragmentation is done by the sender.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
RIP is a routing protocol supported by the routed daemon.
RIP does not support IPv6. It uses static routes.
Networks need to be configured either manually or with DHCP. IPv4 had several overlays to handle Internet growth, which require more maintenance efforts.
IPv6 support autoconfiguration capabilities.
Widespread use of NAT (Network address translation) devices which allows single NAT address can mask thousands of
non-routable addresses, making end-to-end
It allows direct addressing because of vast address
Use for the designated network from host portion.
SNMP is a protocol used for system management.
SNMP does not support IPv6.
Mobility & Interoperability
Relatively constrained network topologies to which move restrict mobility and interoperability capabilities.
IPv6 provides interoperability and mobility
capabilities which are embedded in network devices.
Security is dependent on applications – IPv4 was not designed with security in mind.
IPSec(Internet Protocol Security) is built into the IPv6 protocol, usable with
a proper key infrastructure.
Packet size 576 bytes required, fragmentation optional
1208 bytes required without fragmentation
Allows from routers and sending host
Sending hosts only
Does not identify packet flow for QoS handling which includes checksum options.
Packet head contains Flow Label field that specifies packet flow for QoS handling
Address (A) records, maps hostnames
Address (AAAA) records, maps hostnames
Manual or via DHCP
Stateless address autoconfiguration using Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) or DHCPv6
IP to MAC resolution
Multicast Neighbour Solicitation
Local subnet Group management
Internet Group Management Protocol GMP)
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
Has Optional Fields
Does not have optional fields. But Extension headers are available.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) concerning network security is optional
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Concerning network security is mandatory
Dynamic host configuration Server
Clients have approach DHCS (Dynamic Host Configuration server) whenever they want to connect to a network.
A Client does not have to approach any such server as they are given permanent addresses.
Uses ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) to map to MAC address
Uses NDP(Neighbour Discovery Protocol) to map to MAC address
Combability with mobile devices
IPv4 address uses the dot-decimal notation. That’s why it is not suitable for mobile networks.
IPv6 address is represented in hexadecimal, colon- separated notation.
IPv6 is better suited to mobile
IPv4 and IPv6 cannot communicate with other but can exist together on the same network. This is known as Dual Stack.
IPv4 vs. IPv6: What’s the Difference? | Avast
IPv4: a brief history
Before we get into the differences between the two IP address protocols, what’s IPv4? Well, an IP address is a string of numbers that is assigned to a device to identify it on the internet. It is an address, just as the number and street of your home is an address. While your home address is used to send you mail, your IP address is used to send packets of data that you request.
Internet Protocol version 4, generally referred to as IPv4, was developed in the early 1980s. An IPv4 address comprises four numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, which are separated by periods. For example, Avast’s IP address is 5. 62. 42. 77. There is more to IP addresses, and it helps to understand the essentials of TCP/IP as well, but these are the basics.
Every website has an IP address; we just don’t use them anymore, typically. In the early days of the internet, it was necessary to know a website’s IP address in order to navigate to it. Then, the Domain Name Service (DNS) came along, which translates numbers into names. So when you type in “ the DNS translates that back to 5. This enables us to navigate the web much more conveniently, as it’s much easier to recall a website’s name than its IP address.
Have we run out of IPv4 addresses?
IPv4 has a theoretical limit of 4. 3 billion addresses, and in 1980, that was more than enough. But as the internet grew and went global, we quickly ran out of addresses, especially in today’s era of smartphones and IoT devices.
The internet has been running out of IPv4 addresses since the 1990s. While clever engineers have found ways around the problem, it wasn’t long before a more permanent fix became the goal. Developed to solve these capacity issues for good, IPv6 was needed when IPv4 could no longer support the load.
At present, IPv4 coexists on the internet with its newer version, though eventually, everything will use IPv6. Replacing old IPv4 equipment would be prohibitively expensive and disruptive, and so IPv6 is being slowly rolled out as older IPv4 hardware is retired.
IPv6: the future of the web?
Internet Protocol version 6, or IPv6, was first introduced in the late 1990s as a replacement for IPv4. Even then the builders of the internet realized IPv4’s limitations and the eventual shortage.
IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, allowing for a theoretical 340, 282, 366, 920, 938, 463, 463, 374, 607, 431, 768, 211, 456, or 340 undecillion addresses. IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, with the groups being separated by colons. One example might be “2002:0de6:0001:0042:0100:8c2e:0370:7234, ” but methods to abbreviate this full notation exist.
In addition to increasing the supply of IP addresses, IPv6 also addressed IPv4’s many shortcomings — chief among them being security, which we’ll delve into more later.
IPv4 vs. IPV6
The advent of IPv6 brought more functionality, in addition to more IP addresses. For example, IPv6 supports multicast addressing, which allows bandwidth-intensive packet flows (such as multimedia streams) to be sent to multiple destinations simultaneously, reducing network bandwidth. But is IPv6 better than IPv4? Let’s find out.
IPv6 has a new feature called autoconfiguration, which allows a device to generate an IPv6 address as soon as it powers up and puts itself on the network. The device begins by looking for an IPv6 router. If one is present, the device can generate a local address and a globally routable address, allowing access to the wider internet. In IPv4-based networks, the process of adding devices often has to be done manually.
IPv6 allows devices to stay connected to several networks simultaneously. This is due to interoperability and configuration capabilities that enable the hardware to automatically assign multiple IP addresses to the same device.
Next, we examine the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 through the lenses of speed and security.
IPv4 vs. IPv6: Speed comparison
How do IPv4 and IPv6 compare when it comes to speed? The security blog Sucuri ran a series of tests in which they found that in direct connections, IPv4 and IPv6 delivered the same speed. IPv4 occasionally won the test.
In theory, IPv6 should be a little faster since cycles don’t have to be wasted on NAT translations. But IPv6 also has larger packets, which may make it slower for some use cases. What really makes a difference at this point is that IPv4 networks are mature and thus highly optimized, more so than IPv6 networks. So with time and tuning, IPv6 networks will get faster.
IPv4 vs. IPv6: Security comparison
IPv6 was built with more security in mind. IP Security (IPSec) is a series of IETF security protocols for security, authentication, and data integrity, and it’s fully integrated into IPv6. The thing is, IPSec can also be fully integrated into IPv4. It’s up to ISPs to implement it — and not all companies do.
IPv6 is designed for end-to-end encryption, so in theory, widespread adoption of IPv6 will make man-in-the-middle attacks significantly more difficult.
IPv6 also supports more-secure name resolution. The Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) protocol adds a security extension to the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP), which handles discovery of other network nodes on a local link. By default, NDP is not secure, so it can be susceptible to malicious interference. SEND secures NDP with a cryptographic method that is independent of IPsec.
Thanks to native IPSec, IPv6 provides two security headers which can be used separately or together: the Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Authentication Header provides data-origin authentication and protection against replay attacks, while ESP delivers connectionless integrity, data-origin authentication, protection against replay attacks, and limited traffic flow confidentiality, as well as privacy and confidentiality through encryption of the payload. IPv4 can also have this protection if IPSec is implemented on the network.
IPv4 has been significantly updated over the years, so the difference between IPv4 and IPv6 security is not extraordinary. The same IPSec in IPv6 is now available for IPv4; it’s up to network providers and end users alike to embrace and use it — so a properly configured IPv4 network can be as secure as an IPv6 network.
Avast SecureLine VPN is currently compatible only with IPv4, but keeps your IP completely hidden with bank-grade encryption to maintain safety and anonymity online.
Additional benefits of IPv6
IPv6 allows for binding a public signature key — one-half of an asymmetric encryption system, the other being the private key — to an IPv6 address. The resulting Cryptographically Generated Address allows the user to demonstrate “proof of ownership” for a particular IPv6 address and validate their identity. It is impossible to retrofit this functionality to IPv4 with the current 32-bit address space constraint.
The new protocol also enables end-to-end connectivity at the IP layer by eliminating the need for Network Address Translation (NAT) — one of the workarounds designed to conserve IPv4 addresses. This transition opens the door for new and valuable services. Peer-to-peer networks are easier to create and maintain, and services such as VoIP and Quality of Service (QoS) become more robust.
Also, IPv6 brings the ability to belong to many networks simultaneously, with a unique address on each network, and the ability to combine multiple enterprise networks without readdressing.
Ultimately: Is IPv6 better? Usually, but not always. If you’re asking yourself, “Should I use IPv6? ” read on before making your decision.
How to disable IPv6 on Windows, Mac, and Linux
Since very few VPN services support IPv6, IPv6 traffic on your physical NIC may leak information about your online activity or your hardware MAC address. For that reason, if your ISP does support IPv6, but you use a VPN like SecureLine VPN, you should disable IPv6 on your system.
The first thing to do is determine if your ISP supports IPv6. Comcast most notably does and makes a lot of noise about it. However, plenty of big-name ISPs do not, such as Spectrum (which you may know as Time Warner or Road Runner). This site will help you determine if your ISP supports it.
If the IPv6 connectivity test says “Not supported, ” then you are OK and your IPv6 address isn’t leaking. Spectrum falls into this category. If the test for IPv6 connectivity says “Supported, ” then you should consider disabling the IPv6 in your operating system.
Instructions for disabling IPv6 are available for Windows, MacOS, and Linux.
Why don’t we switch to IPv6 permanently?
We will, in time. Legacy technologies take a long time to die off, and the switch to a replacement is never as fast as its supporters would prefer. There will be a permanent migration to IPv6, but it will take decades to achieve. The Internet Society reported last year that there are 24 countries in the world where IPv6 totals more than 15% of overall IP traffic, and 49 that have topped the 5% threshold. So migration from IPv4 to IPv6 is progressing very slowly.
How to Protect your IP address
Why protect your IP address? With your location showing, you expose yourself to a variety of security and privacy issues, such as:
Packet sniffing: Hackers can observe your IP traffic to find out sensitive information about you such as your online banking activity.
Surveillance: Your ISP, snoops, and even governments can spy on your web Websites can see your location and discriminate against you based on it. They can block content and even raise prices.
Avast SecureLine VPN hides your IP address and anonymizes your online activity to keep you safe online. Take back your online privacy in just one click.
IPv4 vs IPv6 | Top 9 Most Useful Differences You Need To Know
Difference Between IPv4 vs IPv6
Internet protocol versions are IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 was introduced in 1983 and is still popular in use as IP for several systems. It helps to identify the systems in a network using an address. The 32-bit address is used, which stores several addresses. Still, it is the primary internet protocol and controls the majority of internet traffic. IPv6 was developed in 1994 and is called as next generation. IPv6 has a 128-bit address space. IPv4 has periods as delimiters, whereas IPv6 has colons as delimiters. The configuration is needed in IPv4 to other systems, whereas IPv6 does not require configuration.
IPv4 is one of the important core protocols of the standard internetworking methods that are being deployed on the internet. This is basically a connectionless protocol that is mainly used in packet-switched networks. It uses a 32-bit IPv4 version, and so the maximum number of IP addresses is 2 to the power 32. It is mainly formatted as four 8-bit fields. Find below a few important characteristics of IPv4:
It enhances its support towards video library files and conferences
It is basically an implementation for the connectionless protocol
It is used in the creation of virtual communication layers over different devices.
IPv6 has become a draft standard in 1998 and was later established as an Internet Standard in 2017. It is mainly represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, and colons separate each group. It also enhances and implements hierarchical address allocation methods, which increase the routing capabilities and the limit of the routing tables. Find below a few important characteristics of IPv6:
It provides support towards storing an unlimited number of IP addresses and becomes a favorable choice for interactions between neighboring nodes.
It provides extensive supports towards the state-full and state-less configurations.
It enhances the Hierarchical addressing infrastructure.
Head To Head Comparison Between IPv4 and IPv6 (Infographics)
Below is the top 9 difference between IPv4 and IPv6:
Key Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6
Both IPv4 vs IPv6 are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6:
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is basically the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP) and was initially published in 1981. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the Internet Protocol (IP), and it became a draft standard in 1998 and was later established as an Internet Standard in 2017.
From the end-to-end connectivity perspective, IPv6 provides better results than IPv4.
IPv4 is a 32 bit IP address, whereas IPv6 is a 128 bit IP address.
IPv4 offers five classes of IP addresses (Class A to E), whereas IPv6 offers an unlimited number of IP addresses.
IPv4 offers support to the Virtual Length Subnet Mask (VLSM), whereas there is no support provided for VLSM in the case of IPv6.
IPv4 offers support to the SNMP protocol for system management, whereas there is no support provided for VLSM in the case of IPv6.
IPv6 provides much better Multicast and Anycast abilities than IPv4.
IPv4 and IPv6 Comparison Table
Below is the topmost comparison between IPv4 and IPv6.
Basis of Comparison
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is basically the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP) and was initially published in 1981. It is a 32 bit IP address.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the Internet Protocol (IP), and it became a draft standard in 1998 and later established as an Internet Standard in 2017. It is a 128 bit IP address.
In the case of IPv4, a whole new system needs to be configured and installed before communication with the other systems.
In the case of IPv6, the basic configuration is optional, and the concerned performance entirely depends on the required functions.
In the case of IPv4, the basic networking structure needs to be manually configured or using DHCP. It also incorporates several layers to enhance networking performance which in turn also requires maintenance for the same.
In the case of IPv6, the basic networking structure needs not to be manually configured as it supports the auto-configuration feature. That’s the way it also enhances the networking performance for the same.
Fragmentation Testing and Performance
IPv4b uses normal sending and forwarding routes for the fragmentation processes.
IPv6 uses the sending process only to implement and enhance the fragmentation process.
It implements the basic constrained network topologies. This, in turn, is used to restrict mobility movements and interoperability for the same.
In the case of IPv6, it provides the embedded interoperability and mobility capabilities for networking devices.
Security and Performance
From the security and performance perspective, IPv4 is less preferred than IPv6. It all depends on the applications, and there are no internal layers of security implemented for IPv4.
In the case of IPv6, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is inbuilt, and thus it follows proper levels of secured architecture. Thus, it is more preferred than IPv4 from the security and performance perspective.
Support and Performance Upgradation
IPv4 has large community support and extensive documentation libraries.
IPv6 also has one of the largest community supports.
In the case of IPv4, there is a presence of routing protocol (RIP) which is supported by the routed daemon. Thus, from the routing performance perspective, IPv4 is more preferred than IPv6.
In the case of IPv6, there is no specific routing protocol support (RIP), and thus it only uses static routes. Thus it is less preferred than IPv4.
Advanced feature performance
In the case of IPv4, extensive uses of NAT (Network Address Translation) devices allow a single NAT address to mask thousands of address to enrich end to end integrity feature and performances.
In the case of IPv6, there is larger space availability, and thus it allows direct addressing processes.
In this IPv4 vs IPv6 article, we have seen both IPv4 vs IPv6 are important in the networking and communication industries. After comparing IPv4 and IPv6 over a range of factors, it can be concluded that each one has its own pros and cons. So, before choosing any one of them, the basic features of both IPv4 vs IPv6 networking protocols should be properly learned and analyzed. Thus, based on the type of project need, time of work, and other discussed aspects, any of these two should be selected to reach the desired goal.
This has been a guide to the top difference between IPv4 vs IPv6. Here we have discussed IPv4 vs IPv6 head to head comparison, key difference, and infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –
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Frequently Asked Questions about how is ipv6 different from ipv4
Is there any performance difference between IPv4 and IPv6?
IPv4 occasionally won the test. In theory, IPv6 should be a little faster since cycles don’t have to be wasted on NAT translations. But IPv6 also has larger packets, which may make it slower for some use cases. … So with time and tuning, IPv6 networks will get faster.May 8, 2020
Is IPv4 or IPv6 better?
From the end-to-end connectivity perspective, IPv6 provides better results than IPv4. IPv4 is a 32 bit IP address, whereas IPv6 is a 128 bit IP address. … IPv6 provides much better Multicast and Anycast abilities than IPv4.