• February 1, 2023

Headless Browser Javascript

puppeteer/puppeteer: Headless Chrome Node.js API - GitHub

puppeteer/puppeteer: Headless Chrome Node.js API – GitHub

API | FAQ | Contributing | Troubleshooting
Puppeteer is a Node library which provides a high-level API to control Chrome or Chromium over the DevTools Protocol. Puppeteer runs headless by default, but can be configured to run full (non-headless) Chrome or Chromium.
What can I do?
Most things that you can do manually in the browser can be done using Puppeteer! Here are a few examples to get you started:
Generate screenshots and PDFs of pages.
Crawl a SPA (Single-Page Application) and generate pre-rendered content (i. e. “SSR” (Server-Side Rendering)).
Automate form submission, UI testing, keyboard input, etc.
Create an up-to-date, automated testing environment. Run your tests directly in the latest version of Chrome using the latest JavaScript and browser features.
Capture a timeline trace of your site to help diagnose performance issues.
Test Chrome Extensions.
Give it a spin:
Getting Started
Installation
To use Puppeteer in your project, run:
npm i puppeteer
# or “yarn add puppeteer”
Note: When you install Puppeteer, it downloads a recent version of Chromium (~170MB Mac, ~282MB Linux, ~280MB Win) that is guaranteed to work with the API. To skip the download, download into another path, or download a different browser, see Environment variables.
puppeteer-core
Since version 1. 7. 0 we publish the puppeteer-core package,
a version of Puppeteer that doesn’t download any browser by default.
npm i puppeteer-core
# or “yarn add puppeteer-core”
puppeteer-core is intended to be a lightweight version of Puppeteer for launching an existing browser installation or for connecting to a remote one. Be sure that the version of puppeteer-core you install is compatible with the
browser you intend to connect to.
See puppeteer vs puppeteer-core.
Usage
Puppeteer follows the latest maintenance LTS version of Node.
Note: Prior to v1. 18. 1, Puppeteer required at least Node v6. 4. 0. Versions from v1. 1 to v2. 1. 0 rely on
Node 8. 9. 0+. Starting from v3. 0 Puppeteer starts to rely on Node 10. 1+. All examples below use async/await which is only supported in Node v7. 6. 0 or greater.
Puppeteer will be familiar to people using other browser testing frameworks. You create an instance
of Browser, open pages, and then manipulate them with Puppeteer’s API.
Example – navigating to and saving a screenshot as
Save file as
const puppeteer = require(‘puppeteer’);
(async () => {
const browser = await ();
const page = await wPage();
await (”);
await reenshot({ path: ”});
await ();})();
Execute script on the command line
Puppeteer sets an initial page size to 800×600px, which defines the screenshot size. The page size can be customized with tViewport().
Example – create a PDF.
await (”, {
waitUntil: ‘networkidle2’, });
await ({ path: ”, format: ‘a4’});
See () for more information about creating pdfs.
Example – evaluate script in the context of the page
// Get the “viewport” of the page, as reported by the page.
const dimensions = await page. evaluate(() => {
return {
width: ientWidth,
height: ientHeight,
deviceScaleFactor: vicePixelRatio, };});
(‘Dimensions:’, dimensions);
See Page. evaluate() for more information on evaluate and related methods like evaluateOnNewDocument and exposeFunction.
Default runtime settings
1. Uses Headless mode
Puppeteer launches Chromium in headless mode. To launch a full version of Chromium, set the headless option when launching a browser:
const browser = await ({ headless: false}); // default is true
2. Runs a bundled version of Chromium
By default, Puppeteer downloads and uses a specific version of Chromium so its API
is guaranteed to work out of the box. To use Puppeteer with a different version of Chrome or Chromium,
pass in the executable’s path when creating a Browser instance:
const browser = await ({ executablePath: ‘/path/to/Chrome’});
You can also use Puppeteer with Firefox Nightly (experimental support). See () for more information.
See this article for a description of the differences between Chromium and Chrome. This article describes some differences for Linux users.
3. Creates a fresh user profile
Puppeteer creates its own browser user profile which it cleans up on every run.
Resources
API Documentation
Examples
Community list of Puppeteer resources
Debugging tips
Turn off headless mode – sometimes it’s useful to see what the browser is
displaying. Instead of launching in headless mode, launch a full version of
the browser using headless: false:
const browser = await ({ headless: false});
Slow it down – the slowMo option slows down Puppeteer operations by the
specified amount of milliseconds. It’s another way to help see what’s going on.
const browser = await ({
headless: false,
slowMo: 250, // slow down by 250ms});
Capture console output – You can listen for the console event.
This is also handy when debugging code in page. evaluate():
(‘console’, (msg) => (‘PAGE LOG:’, ()));
await page. evaluate(() => (`url is ${}`));
Use debugger in application code browser
There are two execution context: that is running test code, and the browser
running application code being tested. This lets you debug code in the
application code browser; ie code inside evaluate().
Use {devtools: true} when launching Puppeteer:
const browser = await ({ devtools: true});
Change default test timeout:
jest: tTimeout(100000);
jasmine: FAULT_TIMEOUT_INTERVAL = 100000;
mocha: this. timeout(100000); (don’t forget to change test to use function and not ‘=>’)
Add an evaluate statement with debugger inside / add debugger to an existing evaluate statement:
await page. evaluate(() => {
debugger;});
The test will now stop executing in the above evaluate statement, and chromium will stop in debug mode.
Use debugger in
This will let you debug test code. For example, you can step over await () in the script and see the click happen in the application code browser.
Note that you won’t be able to run await () in
DevTools console due to this Chromium bug. So if
you want to try something out, you have to add it to your test file.
Add debugger; to your test, eg:
debugger;
await (‘a[target=_blank]’);
Set headless to false
Run node –inspect-brk, eg node –inspect-brk node_modules/ tests
In Chrome open chromeinspect/#devices and click inspect
In the newly opened test browser, type F8 to resume test execution
Now your debugger will be hit and you can debug in the test browser
Enable verbose logging – internal DevTools protocol traffic
will be logged via the debug module under the puppeteer namespace.
# Basic verbose logging
env DEBUG=”puppeteer:*” node
# Protocol traffic can be rather noisy. This example filters out all Network domain messages
env DEBUG=”puppeteer:*” env DEBUG_COLORS=true node 2>&1 | grep -v ‘”Network’
Debug your Puppeteer (node) code easily, using ndb
npm install -g ndb (or even better, use npx! )
add a debugger to your Puppeteer (node) code
add ndb (or npx ndb) before your test command. For example:
ndb jest or ndb mocha (or npx ndb jest / npx ndb mocha)
debug your test inside chromium like a boss!
Usage with TypeScript
We have recently completed a migration to move the Puppeteer source code from JavaScript to TypeScript and as of version 7. 1 we ship our own built-in type definitions.
If you are on a version older than 7, we recommend installing the Puppeteer type definitions from the DefinitelyTyped repository:
npm install –save-dev @types/puppeteer
The types that you’ll see appearing in the Puppeteer source code are based off the great work of those who have contributed to the @types/puppeteer package. We really appreciate the hard work those people put in to providing high quality TypeScript definitions for Puppeteer’s users.
Contributing to Puppeteer
Check out contributing guide to get an overview of Puppeteer development.
Q: Who maintains Puppeteer?
The Chrome DevTools team maintains the library, but we’d love your help and expertise on the project!
See Contributing.
Q: What is the status of cross-browser support?
Official Firefox support is currently experimental. The ongoing collaboration with Mozilla aims to support common end-to-end testing use cases, for which developers expect cross-browser coverage. The Puppeteer team needs input from users to stabilize Firefox support and to bring missing APIs to our attention.
From Puppeteer v2. 0 onwards you can specify ({product: ‘firefox’}) to run your Puppeteer scripts in Firefox Nightly, without any additional custom patches. While an older experiment required a patched version of Firefox, the current approach works with “stock” Firefox.
We will continue to collaborate with other browser vendors to bring Puppeteer support to browsers such as Safari.
This effort includes exploration of a standard for executing cross-browser commands (instead of relying on the non-standard DevTools Protocol used by Chrome).
Q: What are Puppeteer’s goals and principles?
The goals of the project are:
Provide a slim, canonical library that highlights the capabilities of the DevTools Protocol.
Provide a reference implementation for similar testing libraries. Eventually, these other frameworks could adopt Puppeteer as their foundational layer.
Grow the adoption of headless/automated browser testing.
Help dogfood new DevTools Protocol catch bugs!
Learn more about the pain points of automated browser testing and help fill those gaps.
We adapt Chromium principles to help us drive product decisions:
Speed: Puppeteer has almost zero performance overhead over an automated page.
Security: Puppeteer operates off-process with respect to Chromium, making it safe to automate potentially malicious pages.
Stability: Puppeteer should not be flaky and should not leak memory.
Simplicity: Puppeteer provides a high-level API that’s easy to use, understand, and debug.
Q: Is Puppeteer replacing Selenium/WebDriver?
No. Both projects are valuable for very different reasons:
Selenium/WebDriver focuses on cross-browser automation; its value proposition is a single standard API that works across all major browsers.
Puppeteer focuses on Chromium; its value proposition is richer functionality and higher reliability.
That said, you can use Puppeteer to run tests against Chromium, e. g. using the community-driven jest-puppeteer. While this probably shouldn’t be your only testing solution, it does have a few good points compared to WebDriver:
Puppeteer requires zero setup and comes bundled with the Chromium version it works best with, making it very easy to start with. At the end of the day, it’s better to have a few tests running chromium-only, than no tests at all.
Puppeteer has event-driven architecture, which removes a lot of potential flakiness. There’s no need for evil “sleep(1000)” calls in puppeteer scripts.
Puppeteer runs headless by default, which makes it fast to run. Puppeteer v1. 5. 0 also exposes browser contexts, making it possible to efficiently parallelize test execution.
Puppeteer shines when it comes to debugging: flip the “headless” bit to false, add “slowMo”, and you’ll see what the browser is doing. You can even open Chrome DevTools to inspect the test environment.
Q: Why doesn’t Puppeteer work with Chromium
We see Puppeteer as an indivisible entity with Chromium. Each version of Puppeteer bundles a specific version of Chromium – the only version it is guaranteed to work with.
This is not an artificial constraint: A lot of work on Puppeteer is actually taking place in the Chromium repository. Here’s a typical story:
A Puppeteer bug is reported: It turned out this is an issue with the DevTools protocol, so we’re fixing it in Chromium: Once the upstream fix is landed, we roll updated Chromium into Puppeteer:
However, oftentimes it is desirable to use Puppeteer with the official Google Chrome rather than Chromium. For this to work, you should install a puppeteer-core version that corresponds to the Chrome version.
For example, in order to drive Chrome 71 with puppeteer-core, use chrome-71 npm tag:
npm install [email protected]
Q: Which Chromium version does Puppeteer use?
Look for the chromium entry in To find the corresponding Chromium commit and version number, search for the revision prefixed by an r in OmahaProxy’s “Find Releases” section.
Q: Which Firefox version does Puppeteer use?
Since Firefox support is experimental, Puppeteer downloads the latest Firefox Nightly when the PUPPETEER_PRODUCT environment variable is set to firefox. That’s also why the value of firefox in is latest — Puppeteer isn’t tied to a particular Firefox version.
To fetch Firefox Nightly as part of Puppeteer installation:
PUPPETEER_PRODUCT=firefox npm i puppeteer
Q: What’s considered a “Navigation”?
From Puppeteer’s standpoint, “navigation” is anything that changes a page’s URL.
Aside from regular navigation where the browser hits the network to fetch a new document from the web server, this includes anchor navigations and History API usage.
With this definition of “navigation, ” Puppeteer works seamlessly with single-page applications.
Q: What’s the difference between a “trusted” and “untrusted” input event?
In browsers, input events could be divided into two big groups: trusted vs. untrusted.
Trusted events: events generated by users interacting with the page, e. using a mouse or keyboard.
Untrusted event: events generated by Web APIs, e. eateEvent or () methods.
Websites can distinguish between these two groups:
using an Trusted event flag
sniffing for accompanying events. For example, every trusted ‘click’ event is preceded by ‘mousedown’ and ‘mouseup’ events.
For automation purposes it’s important to generate trusted events. All input events generated with Puppeteer are trusted and fire proper accompanying events. If, for some reason, one needs an untrusted event, it’s always possible to hop into a page context with page. evaluate and generate a fake event:
document. querySelector(‘button[type=submit]’)();});
Q: What features does Puppeteer not support?
You may find that Puppeteer does not behave as expected when controlling pages that incorporate audio and video. (For example, video playback/screenshots is likely to fail. ) There are two reasons for this:
Puppeteer is bundled with Chromium — not Chrome — and so by default, it inherits all of Chromium’s media-related limitations. This means that Puppeteer does not support licensed formats such as AAC or H. 264. (However, it is possible to force Puppeteer to use a separately-installed version Chrome instead of Chromium via the executablePath option to You should only use this configuration if you need an official release of Chrome that supports these media formats. )
Since Puppeteer (in all configurations) controls a desktop version of Chromium/Chrome, features that are only supported by the mobile version of Chrome are not supported. This means that Puppeteer does not support HTTP Live Streaming (HLS).
Q: I am having trouble installing / running Puppeteer in my test environment. Where should I look for help?
We have a troubleshooting guide for various operating systems that lists the required dependencies.
Q: Chromium gets downloaded on every npm ci run. How can I cache the download?
The default download path is node_modules/puppeteer/ However, you can change that path with the PUPPETTER_DOWNLOAD_PATH environment variable.
Puppeteer uses that variable to resolve the Chromium executable location during launch, so you don’t need to specify PUPPETEER_EXECUTABLE_PATH as well.
For example, if you wish to keep the Chromium download in ~/
export PUPPETEER_DOWNLOAD_PATH=~/
npm ci
# by default the Chromium executable path is inferred
# from the download path
npm test
# a new run of npm ci will check for the existence of
# Chromium in ~/
Q: How do I try/test a prerelease version of Puppeteer?
You can check out this repo or install the latest prerelease from npm:
npm i –save [email protected]
Please note that prerelease may be unstable and contain bugs.
Q: I have more questions! Where do I ask?
There are many ways to get help on Puppeteer:
bugtracker
Stack Overflow
Make sure to search these channels before posting your question.
Headless browser - Wikipedia

Headless browser – Wikipedia

A headless browser is a web browser without a graphical user interface.
Headless browsers provide automated control of a web page in an environment similar to popular web browsers, but they are executed via a command-line interface or using network communication. They are particularly useful for testing web pages as they are able to render and understand HTML the same way a browser would, including styling elements such as page layout, colour, font selection and execution of JavaScript and Ajax which are usually not available when using other testing methods. [1]
Since version 59 of Google Chrome[2][3] and version 56[4] of Firefox, [5] there is native support for remote control of the browser. This made earlier efforts obsolete, notably PhantomJS. [6]
Use cases[edit]
The main use cases for headless browsers are:
Test automation in modern web applications (web testing)
Taking screenshots of web pages.
Running automated tests for JavaScript libraries.
Automating interaction of web pages.
Other uses[edit]
Headless browsers are also useful for web scraping. Google stated in 2009 that using a headless browser could help their search engine index content from websites that use Ajax. [7]
Headless browsers have also been misused in various ways:
Perform DDoS attacks on web sites. [8]
Increase advertisement impressions. [9]
Automate web sites in unintended ways[10] e. g. for credential stuffing. [11]
However, a study of browser traffic in 2018 found no preference by malicious actors for headless browsers. [3] There is no indication that headless browsers are used more frequently than non-headless browsers for malicious purposes, like DDoS attacks, SQL injections or cross-site scripting attacks
Usage[edit]
As several major browsers natively support headless mode through APIs, some software exists to perform browser automation through a unified interface. These include:
Selenium WebDriver – a W3C compliant implementation of WebDriver[12]
Playwright – a library to automate Chromium, Firefox and WebKit[13]
Puppeteer – a library to automate Chrome[14]
Test Automation[edit]
Some test automation software and frameworks include headless browsers as part of their testing apparati. [3]
Capybara uses headless browsing, either via WebKit or Headless Chrome to mimic user behavior in its testing protocols. [15]
Jasmine uses Selenium by default, but can use WebKit or Headless Chrome, to run browser tests. [16]
Alternatives[edit]
Another approach is to use software that provides browser APIs. For example, Deno provides browser APIs as part of its design. For, jsdom[17] is the most complete provider. While most are able to support common browser features (HTML parsing, cookies, XHR, some JavaScript, etc. ), they do not render the DOM and have limited support for DOM events. They usually perform faster than full browsers, but are unable to correctly interpret many popular websites. [18][19][20]
Another is HtmlUnit, a headless browser written in Java. HtmlUnit uses the Rhino engine to provide JavaScript and Ajax support as well as partial rendering capability. [21][22]
List of headless browsers[edit]
These are various software that provide headless browser APIs.
Splash is a headless web browser written in Python using the WebKit layout engine via Qt. It has an HTTP API, Lua scripting support and a built-in IPython (Jupyter)-based IDE. Development started at ScrapingHub in 2013; it is partially funded by DARPA. [23][24]
is a simulated browser environment for [25]
SimpleBrowser is a headless web browser written in C# supporting Standard 2. 0[26]
DotNetBrowser is a proprietary Chromium-based library that provides the off-screen rendering mode and can be used without embedding or displaying windows. [27][28]
Another noted earlier effort was envjs in 2008 from John Resig, which was a simulated browser environment written in JavaScript for the Rhino engine. [29]
See also[edit]
Headless computer
References[edit]
^ “What is a headless browser? “.
^ “Getting Started with Headless Chrome”.
^ a b c Bekerman, Dima (2018-11-28). “Headless Chrome: DevOps Love It, So Do Hackers, Here’s Why | Imperva”. Blog. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
^ “Firefox 56 release notes”.
^ “Headless mode – browser support”.
^ “Quick Start”.
^ Mueller, John (2009-10-07). “Official Google Webmaster Central Blog: A proposal for making AJAX crawlable”. Official Google Webmaster Central Blog.
^ Rawlings, Matt (2013-11-20). “Headless Browser Botnet Used in 150 hour DDoS attack”. Business 2 Community.
^ Mello Jr., John P. (2014-03-25). “Headless Web Traffic Threatens Internet Economy”.
^ Raywood, Dan (2014-04-01). “Headless browsers: legitimate software that enables attack”. ITProPortal.
^ Mueller, Neal. “Credential stuffing”.
^ Sheth, Himanshu (2020-11-17). “Selenium 4 Is Now W3C Compliant: All You Need To Know”.
^ “GitHub – Playwright”. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
^ “Github – Puppeteer”. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
^ Silva, Francisco (2019-05-29). “From capybara-webkit to Headless Chrome and ChromeDriver”. Blog | Imaginary Cloud. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
^ Bintz, John. “jasmine-headless-webkit — The fastest way to run your Jasmine specs! “. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
^ “JSDOM at GitHub – Pretending to be a visual browser”. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
^ “assaf/zombie”. GitHub.
^ “ヘルペスが口や目からうつる?感染した時の症状と病院の治療方法とは”.. Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 2015-03-13.
^ “JavaScriptMVC – EnvJS”.
^ Mike Bowler. “HtmlUnit – Welcome to HtmlUnit”.
^ “Platform (Vaadin 7. 3. 4 API)”. 6 November 2014.
^ “scrapinghub/splash”. GitHub.
^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-05-28. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ “Zombie”.
^ SimpleBrowserDotNet/SimpleBrowser, SimpleBrowserDotNet, 2021-02-10, retrieved 2021-02-22
^ DotNetBrowser Examples, TeamDev, 2021-03-12, retrieved 2021-03-12
^ “DotNetBrowser”. TeamDev. 2021-05-05.
^ Resig, John (2008-10-12). “env-js: A pure-JavaScript browser environment” – via GitHub.
Headless Browser Testing 101 | Sauce Labs

Headless Browser Testing 101 | Sauce Labs

Headless browsers are gaining in popularity as a viable option for testing web apps. However, when determining your test strategy, it’s important to understand how headless browsers can help improve your efforts, and where they might hinder them.
This article explains what headless browser testing is and which use cases it support. It also identifies the limitations of headless browser testing, and discusses situations in which you may not want to use it.
What Is a Headless Browser?
“Headless browser” is a funny-sounding term that refers to something that software test engineers use all the time: a web browser that is not configured with a Graphical User Interface.
A headless browser is a type of software that can access webpages but does not show them to the user and can pipe the content of the webpages to another program. Unlike a normal browser, nothing will appear on the screen when you start up a headless browser, since the programs run at the backend.
Like a normal browser, a headless browser can parse and interpret webpages (although behaviors can differ between different browser implementations), so it can provide a real browser context without any of the memory and speed costs of running a full-fledged one with a GUI. For example, a headless browser should be capable of parsing JavaScript, clicking on links, coping with any downloads, etc. Executing a headless browser typically means doing so via a command line interface or using network communication.
Google Chrome and Firefox both have versions of their web browser with a headless option. Other browser options that offer some form of a headless implementation include: HtmlUnit, TrifleJS, Splash, and SimpleBrowser.
Headless browsers may not be very useful for surfing the Web, but they are a great tool for testing. Here are some things you might want to know about headless browser testing and the advantages and disadvantages of leveraging it for your testing needs.
Headless Browser Testing: How Can It Be Useful?
Automation
Since headless browsers can provide automated control of webpages, they can be used for automating tasks, scripts, and User Interface tests against a browser without the need for starting up the User Interface of the browser. Webpage interactions can be automated such as form submissions, keyboard inputs, mouse clicks, etc. You can also run automated tests for JavaScript libraries. Headless browser testing can enable up-to-date automated tests in a browser environment.
Layout Testing
Headless browser testing can facilitate a lot of layout checks since headless implementations can render and interpret HTML and CSS like a real browser. This means that it is possible to test style elements such as page layouts (e. g. determining the default width of the page, the coordinates of where an element is), color selection for any elements, font used, etc. It can also test for JavaScript and AJAX execution. You can even automate screen captures for layout checks.
Data Extraction
A full instance of a browser would be overkill if you just want to perform website scraping and data extraction. You may not necessarily want to start up a website, go to it, and scrape it. It is much easier and quicker to navigate to a website headlessly, scrape for data, and use the results to test multiple webpages as part of a quality control effort.
Performance
Headless browsers are your friend if performance is critical. They are faster than real browsers since they do not come with all the overhead of starting up a browser GUI, and this equates to quicker results for your tests. For your developers, this means a lot of time saved when they just want to perform quick and small smoke tests where the UI is irrelevant (i. e., “Can I log into the application? ” or “Is SSL enabled? ”). Being able to perform non-exhaustive tasks via the command line without the need to manually refresh a page or start a browser can save a lot of effort. Keep in mind that the overall performance still depends on the actual tests and the system being tested.
Other Uses
Here are some other use cases that can be leveraged with headless browser testing:
Running tests on machines without a Graphical User Interface
Generating screenshots and PDFs of webpages
Monitoring network application performance
Capturing a timeline trace of a website for performance diagnosis
Simulating multiple browsers on a single machine without the resource hog
Limitations of Headless Browser Testing
As illustrated above, many things that can be tested manually in a real browser can be tested using a headless implementation, but you cannot actually use it for all your browser testing needs, and you should perform testing on real browsers most of the time.
At the end of the day, your end users are not using a headless browser, and so you do not want to focus on bugs that only happen in headless mode. In order to test for user experience and do a functional test, you need to mimic a real user and get precise feedback on what they will actually experience on the website. You want to observe the actual behavior and interaction between an end user and the browser.
Sometimes it is necessary to see your test run on a real browser. This can often be an easy and good debugging technique. If you need to do a lot of browser debugging, this can be challenging in headless mode. A headless browser is a different browser, and tests can catch bugs and throw errors that won’t occur on a real browser.
Conclusion
Automated headless browser testing is great for when you need fast feedback on components of you application. They are quick to set up, and can ensure that snippets of code are working with the end-to-end experience. Headless testing early on in the pipeline, for example, on every pull request, can help deliver instant feedback to developers before committing code to the master branch. However, headless browsers can be limiting when performing full UI tests, as it won’t interact with the browser the way your users would. In addition, headless browsers can be limiting if you want to test on the full variety of browser and OS combination to ensure coverage. Finally, debugging tools such as video validation and live (manual) testing cannot be accessed with headless. Therefore, a sound testing strategy should include a mix of both types of browsers, as they offer both QA and development the infrastructure they need to test quickly and reliably.
UPDATE: Sauce Labs has released an industry first, cloud-based headless testing platform – Sauce Headless. Learn more about the product, and how to get started, on the Sauce Headless page.
Daisy Tsang is a Software Developer currently based in Berlin. She has worked at companies in Canada and Germany in the past few years, loves learning about new technologies, and is particularly interested in the open-source space. Her non-technical interests include photography, knitting, baking, and learning new natural languages.

Frequently Asked Questions about headless browser javascript

What is headless Javascript?

A headless browser is a web browser without a graphical user interface. Headless browsers provide automated control of a web page in an environment similar to popular web browsers, but they are executed via a command-line interface or using network communication.

Which is the headless browser?

A headless browser is a type of software that can access webpages but does not show them to the user and can pipe the content of the webpages to another program. Unlike a normal browser, nothing will appear on the screen when you start up a headless browser, since the programs run at the backend.May 17, 2018

Which are the examples of headless web browser?

Examples Of Headless BrowsersHtml Unit Browsers.Firefox.Chrome.PhantomJS.Zombie. js.TrifleJS.SlimerJS.Splash.More items…•Sep 27, 2021

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