• February 8, 2023

Fingerprint My Browser

AmIUnique

AmIUnique

Help us investigate the diversity of web website aims at studying the diversity of browser fingerprints and providing developers with data to help them design good defenses. Contribute to the efforts by viewing your own browser fingerprint or consult the current statistics of data provided by users around the world!
View my browser fingerprintIf you click on this button, we will collect your browser fingerprint, we will put a cookie on your browser for a period of 4 months. More details are available in the privacy policyWe have an open research engineer position
hereApplication Deadline: 30st September, 2021You can find some tools to improve your privacy
hereWhat is a browser fingerprint?
FAQWe have an AmIUnique extension for Firefox and Chrome to track the evolution of your fingerprint. See
hereThe publication list related to fingerprinting is available
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Browser Fingerprinting (Explanation, Tests, and Solutions)

Browser Fingerprinting (Explanation, Tests, and Solutions)

In this guide we cover all aspects of browser fingerprinting and device fingerprinting. In addition to explaining what exactly this is, we’ll also show you how to protect yourself against these threats.
Many people use VPN services to hide their IP address and location – but there is another way you can be identified and tracked: through browser fingerprinting.
Whenever you go online, your computer or device provides the sites you visit with highly specific information about your operating system, settings, and even hardware. The use of this information to identify and track you online is known as device or browser fingerprinting.
As browsers become increasingly entwined with the operating system, many unique details and preferences can be exposed through your browser. The sum total of these outputs can be used to render a unique “fingerprint” for tracking and identification purposes.
Your browser fingerprint can reflect:
the User agent headerthe Accept headerthe Connection headerthe Encoding headerthe Language headerthe list of pluginsthe platformthe cookies preferences (allowed or not)the Do Not Track preferences (yes, no or not communicated)the timezonethe screen resolution and its color depththe use of local storagethe use of session storagea picture rendered with the HTML Canvas elementa picture rendered with WebGLthe presence of AdBlockthe list of fonts
How accurate is browser fingerprinting?
Some researchers have found this method of identification to be extremely effective.
Why is this being done?
Browser fingerprinting is just another tool to identify and track people as they browse the web. There are many different entities – both corporate and government – that are monitoring internet activity, and they all have different reasons for doing so. Advertisers and marketers find this technique useful to acquire more data on users, which in turn leads to more advertising revenue.
Some websites use browser fingerprinting to detect potential fraud, such as banks or dating websites, so it’s not always nefarious.
Surveillance agencies could also use this to identify people who are employing other privacy measures to cloak their IP address and location, such as with VPN services or the Tor (onion) network.
Browser fingerprinting test websites
One good test website to see all of the information that is being revealed by your browser is
There are also a few websites that reveal browser data and also assess a “uniqueness” score based on your variables in comparison to their database of browsers.
Cover Your Tracks is run by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. You can learn more is another good resource. It is open source and provides more information and updated fingerprinting techniques, including webGL and canvas.
Are browser fingerprinting test websites very accurate?
Yes and no.
Yes, these websites do provide accurate information about your browser’s fingerprint and the different values being gathered.
No, the “uniqueness” conclusion about your browser from these websites can be wildly inaccurate and very misleading. Here’s why:
Data sample: Cover Your Tracks and are comparing your browser’s fingerprint to a giant database of old, outdated browsers – many of which are no longer in use. When you test your browser’s fingerprint with an updated browser, it may show it as being extremely rare and unique, even though the majority of people are using the same updated version. Conversely, running the test with an old, outdated browser may show a very good result (not unique) when in reality very few people are using the older browser resolution: At least on desktop machines, most people regularly adjust their browser screen size. Every minor screen size value will be measured as a factor for uniqueness, which can be misleading. Randomized fingerprints: Another problem with these test sites is that they don’t account for randomized fingerprints that can be regularly changed through browser extensions. This method may be an effective way to prevent real-world fingerprinting, but it can’t be tested/quantified through these sites.
In general, the browser fingerprinting test websites are good for revealing the unique information and values that can be rendered from your browser. Aside from that, however, trying to beat the test by getting the lowest “uniqueness” score may be a waste of time and counterproductive.
How to mitigate your browser fingerprint
Before we jump into potential solutions, it’s important to note that implementing browser fingerprinting protection methods may break some websites. Be sure to research these different options carefully before adjusting your browser settings.
Another consideration is your threat model. How much privacy do you need or want? The answer to that question will be different for every user.
Lastly, I use the word “mitigate” rather than “solve” because browser fingerprinting is a very complex and evolving issue. For example, a new study revealed that there’s nothing you can do to mitigate some fingerprinting attacks on smartphones (discussed more below).
Here are some good ways to mitigate your browser fingerprint:
1. Browser modifications and tweaks
Depending on the browser you are using, you might have some different options for tweaks and modifications to mitigate browser fingerprinting. Below we’ll discuss various Firefox and Brave browsers, which are both secure and private browsers.
Firefox browser fingerprinting
Firefox is a good browser for privacy and security, and it can also be modified and hardened for your unique needs. (For an overview of Firefox privacy tweaks, see the Firefox privacy guide. ) The first thing you need to do is type about:config into the URL bar of Firefox, hit enter, then agree to “accept the risk” and make the following changes:
sistFingerprinting (change to true) – Changing this value to true will offer some basic protection, but it’s far from a complete solution. The sistFingerprinting preference was added to Firefox as part of the Tor Uplift project and it continues to be (change to true) – WebGL is another tricky issue for privacy and security. Disabling this preference is generally a good idea – see some of the issues with WebGL (change to false) – Disabling WebRTC is a good idea since this can reveal your true IP address, even when you are using a good VPN service. See the WebRTC leak guide for more details and how to disable WebRTC in other (change to false) – This disables geolocation olate (change to true) – This is another great update from the Tor Uplift project that isolates cookies to the first party domain.
Note: This is just a brief overview of changes that improve your privacy and help to mitigate your browser fingerprint. Nonetheless, there are many different factors that go into fingerprinting and you may still have a unique fingerprint even with these changes.
Firefox with the ghacks file
Another great option is to run Firefox with a unique file, such as the ghacks This is a custom Firefox configuration file that has been modified for more privacy and security. I like this option because it can save lots of time with setup and is regularly updated and improved. See the Wiki page for an overview and setup instructions.
When I tested a fresh install of Firefox with the ghacks file, showed my browser fingerprint as as not unique.
Brave browser fingerprinting
Although it is based on Chromium, the Brave Browser may be a good option for those wanting a simple, privacy-focused browser that blocks tracking by default and still supports Chrome extensions. Brave allows you to enable fingerprinting protection, which is under the Brave Shields settings:
See also this article on Github discussing different aspects of fingerprinting protection in Brave.
2. Browser extensions and add-ons to minimize or spoof your fingerprint
There are a number of different browser extensions and add-ons that you may find useful. With that being said here are a few things to remember:
Be careful with third-party extensions, which could potentially undermine your privacy and mindful that using extensions may make your browser fingerprint more unique (many factors).
Now that we’ve gotten those disclaimers out of the way, let’s examine some browser add-ons that may be useful:
Firefox browser:
Canvasblocker by kkapsner – Protects against canvas fingerprinting methods (source on GitHub)Trace by AbsoluteDouble – Protects against various fingerprinting methods (source on GitHub)Chameleon by sereneblue – Allows you to spoof user agent values (source on GitHub)User-Agent Switcher by Alexander Schlarb – Allows you to spoof user agent (source on GitLab)
There are many other Firefox add-ons you may want to consider as well, which are discussed in the Firefox privacy guide. Some of these add-ons are also available for Chromium-based browsers, such as Brave.
Some people recommend spoofing different user agents through a browser extension, while others suggest this is a bad idea because it might make you more “unique”. Of course, there are many factors to consider, but adding noise to your fingerprint may not be a bad strategy.
For example, with Chameleon, you can cycle through different user agents at various time intervals.
Now let’s look at another option for modifying your browser fingerprint: the use of virtual machines.
3. Virtual machines
You can also consider running different virtual machines, which can utilize different operating systems on your host computer. VirtualBox is FOSS and offers an easy way to run different Linux VMs for more privacy and security. There are many different video tutorials online, depending on your operating system and the VM OS you are looking to use.
Virtual machines offer numerous advantages in terms of privacy and security, while also protecting your host machine. For privacy, VMs allow you to easily spoof different operating systems and also chain VPN services, as explained in the multi-hop VPN guide. This also helps keep your host machine secure by isolating a virtual environment. If the VM were to be compromised, simply delete it and create a new one. You can also use different VMs for different purposes.
4. Tor Browser
Another option is to use the Tor browser, which is simply a hardened and protected version of Firefox. It includes numerous privacy and security modifications that are built into the default version:
HTTPS EverywhereNoScriptAnti-tracking featuresCanvas image extraction blockedWebGL blockedOperating system cloaking (shows as Windows 7 for all users)Timezone and language preferences blocked
The key here is to use the default version (the developers do not recommend adding any plugins or extensions because this could compromise the browser’s effectiveness).
You can get the latest version of the Tor browser here.
The default version of the Tor browser is configured to run with the Tor (anonymous/onion) network. While the Tor network does have added benefits in terms of privacy, it also has a number of disadvantages:
Your internet speed will be reduced to around 2 Mbps, making streaming videos or music nearly impossibleTor only encrypts traffic through the browser, rather than encrypting all traffic on your operating system like a VPNTor is vulnerable to IP leaks, especially with WindowsTor is not safe to use when torrenting (see the Best VPNs for Torrenting guide)Tor was created by the US government and is still funded largely by US government grantsSome consider Tor to be compromised
Ultimately, like all privacy tools, Tor has both pros and cons.
Note: You can also first connect to a VPN and then load the Tor browser. This will hide your real IP address from malicious Tor nodes and give you an extra layer of protection. Read more about this in the main Tor guide here.
5. Don’t use smartphones
As we’ve covered before on Restore Privacy, every “smart” device is a data collection tool for corporate entities (and their surveillance partners).
Smartphones are especially vulnerable to browser fingerprinting. A team of researchers at Cambridge published a paper highlighting how smartphones can be fingerprinted using internal sensors – and there’s nothing the user can do about it.
The paper delves into the technical details, but here’s a brief overview of their findings:
The attack can be launched by any website you visit or any app you use on a vulnerable device without requiring any explicit confirmation or consent from attack takes less than one second to generate a attack can generate a globally unique fingerprint for iOS calibration fingerprint never changes, even after a factory attack provides an effective means to track you as you browse across the web and move between apps on your phone.
Unfortunately, there’s nothing you can do about this attack – short of getting rid of your smartphone – and you are entirely dependent on the company to fix the problem with software updates. While Apple has apparently patched this attack vector with iOS 12. 2, Google (Android) is still “investigating” the issue and has not fixed anything.
If you were thinking about ditching the “smart” phone, this research provides yet another reason to do it.
Use a VPN
Although a VPN won’t protect you against browser fingerprinting, it is a very important privacy tool to conceal your IP address, hide your location, and keep your data safe.
If you’re not using a good VPN, your internet provider can easily monitor all your online activity by recording your DNS requests. In many countries, such as the UK and Australia, this is mandatory. Internet providers in the US can also monitor and record their users, and since March 2017, they can also sell this information to third parties (advertisers).
Going through all the hassle to protect yourself against browser fingerprinting may be a waste of time if you aren’t using a good VPN that will encrypt your internet connection and hide your IP address and location. The best VPN services report discusses the top recommendations based on the latest results.
For those who are seeking a higher level of online anonymity, you can also use a multi-hop VPN, which will encrypt your traffic across more than one server (multiple hops) before exiting onto the regular internet.
As mentioned above, combining VPNs also adds additional privacy and security while distributing trust across different VPN providers.
Conclusion on browser fingerprinting
While browser fingerprinting may seem like a daunting issue to some, mitigating your browser fingerprint is relatively easy. For those seeking the highest levels of privacy and security, I’d recommend utilizing virtual machines and perhaps chaining different VPN services (using more than one VPN at the same time).
As a general rule of thumb, Firefox remains a great all-around browser after some modifications and configuration. The secure browsers guide also discusses various options, while the Firefox privacy modifications guide takes a deep-dive into tweaks, extensions, and custom configuration.
Another issue to consider, which was not mentioned in this guide, is using a good ad blocker. Ads today basically function as tracking – they record your browsing habits so you can be hit with targeted advertisements. A good add-on is uBlock Origin, but there are other recommendations in the ad blocker article and privacy tools guide.
Stay safe, secure, and private online!
The Only Two Approaches to Combat Browser Fingerprinting - Multilogin

The Only Two Approaches to Combat Browser Fingerprinting – Multilogin

We are all aware that websites can track and identify visitors. The most common ways include cookie files or finding the IP address that is used. However, these common methods can be easily bypassed, as users can block or delete cookies and mask their IP address.
This is why browser fingerprinting was developed. Browser fingerprinting is the process of gathering information about a user through their browser for identification. The reason why browser fingerprinting is so dangerous is that its prevention is much harder than with other forms of online tracking.
Because of this, we’ve put together an article to help understand browser fingerprinting, why it’s dangerous, and what are the only two effective ways of fighting it.
What Enables Websites to Track Your Identity?
Websites can collect user’s information and fingerprint browser without them ever knowing it. But how exactly does it happen?
The answer lies behind a technology that websites employ and how they interact with your browser. But before going into that, let’s think about the information you need for identifying an individual.
Collecting a single piece of information about a person such as gender, date of birth, or zip code, it’s not enough for identifying them. However, it’s much easier to single out a person and accurately deduce their identity having all three pieces of information put together.
Websites that actively fingerprint your browser, operate under the same concept. Your browser reveals numerous details about your identity. Separately, these pieces of information mean nothing. These include list-plugins, list of system fonts, OS version, screen resolution, etc. When collected together, this same information can accurately determine your identity.
Sites that conduct browser fingerprinting use Javascript to interact with your website’s components for performing tasks like playing sound or video. These tasks reveal mounds of sensitive information and thus allow browser fingerprinting.
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First Generation Methods to Combat Browser Fingerprinting
Browser fingerprinting is very effective because it uses almost every single piece of information available for accurate identification.
Because of this, the only real way to combat browser fingerprinting is masking your IP address. These are disabling Javascript in the browser (meaning no add-ons and extensions), and any plugins that help websites identify you.
Some browsers specialize in letting you navigate internet add-on free. For this example, we will use the Tor Browser, but there are other options available depending on your specific requirements. Tor disables potentially dangerous components and allows you to browse the internet safely through its layered encrypted connection.
In a nutshell, Tor avoids browser fingerprinting by connecting you through a series of virtual tunnels before connecting with the website you’re visiting. Tor Browser also masks your IP address, and at the same time, disables Javascript and plugins that may cause fingerprinting.
Tor Browser is Awesome, but…
The main issue with websites that fingerprint your browser is that they use Javascript to do so. It’s a popular scripting language that allows websites to interact with your browser’s components. Disabling Javascript means having a minimized, almost-crippled browsing experience.
Javascript helps websites interact with browser components and carry out different tasks that enhance the browsing experience for users. These include playing sounds, videos, animations, checking for validity of form input, and more. All popular websites use Javascript for enhancing the user experience. Thus, disabling it would limit browsing experience greatly.
Think about it this way: in one hand you have a smartphone, and the other one holds an outdated dial-pad phone that is worthy of a ‘90s sitcom. Now choose which one to use every day for any tasks.
Because of its many capabilities, smartphones are way easier to track than basic phones. Mobile applications can access a smartphone’s exact location through its GPS feature, as well as saved pictures, message history, and other pieces of information. These can then be used to find out exact details and identify the person using the smartphone.
Older dial-pad phones have very limited usability, and their lack of features make their owners hard to identify. The older phone can’t monitor you, or at least not on such a grand scale, so it provides the safest alternative.
In an ideal world, most people would choose the safest option. However, because we live in an experience-driven world, most people would choose the smartphone even if they know it’s much easier to fingerprint.
So, what should you do in this case?
Combating Browser Fingerprinting by Actively Managing Your Browser’s Fingerprint
Despite identity protection should be a priority, it’s hard to deny oneself to browse the internet with diminished usability.
In these cases, you can always turn to browser identity management and automation platforms to help you browse the internet while still protecting your identity. These platforms allow you to combat browser fingerprinting while maintaining full browser experiences.
Instead of disabling add-ons and plugins, browser identity management platforms actively mask all the information that can be used to deduce your identity. This is achieved by creating numerous online profiles you can then use to access websites.
At the same time, browser identity management platforms deploy numerous counter-fingerprinting technologies that prevent these sites from connecting multiple accounts that belong to the same user. Although websites will be able to fingerprint these profiles, they will not be able to link them either you or one another.
In other words, you can create and manage each profile and choose which one to use every time you enter a website, which leads us to our next point…
Choosing the Best Way to Combat Browser Fingerprinting for You
Both Tor and browser identity management platforms offer great alternatives to fighting browser fingerprinting, but there are significant differences between the two.
Tor Browser masks the parameters that identify you, but you will still have the same static parameters every time you connect to the internet. In other words, if you connect 50 times in a day, you will have 50 connections that look the same, except for their IP address. Furthermore, your connection will look the same as the connection of thousands of other Tor Browser users.
This can set off temporary blocks on accounts and other restrictions, sometimes resulting in major setbacks.
That being said, Tor Browser can be a great tool for certain industries in specific scenarios, such as:
Journalism: Journalism often requires researching for sensitive information. These search terms can trigger government agency red flags, which can pose a huge inconvenience. To avoid this, journalists can access the information they need without worrying about being contacted or questioned by authorities.
Law Enforcement: Law enforcers often access open source databases online, and may require anonymity to avoid leaving any evidence of an ongoing investigation.
Independent and Alternative News Channels: Independent news channels often become targets for exposing injustices. Maintaining high levels of online privacy helps to avoid any repercussions.
On the other hand, browser identity management platforms provide a great solution if you need to connect with a specific identity each time you access a website.
Browser identity management platforms create several unique identities. So every time you connect to any website you can choose which one you want to use. All parameters used to fingerprint your device are masked each time you access a website, safeguarding your identity and allowing full browser functionalities.
Some common uses for browser identity management platforms include:
Online Marketing: Marketing experts often need simultaneous access across many social media accounts. They manage accounts for customers and do multiple logins a day. With browser identity management software, marketing experts can create different unique identities. It allows accessing social media and other platforms simultaneously.
Web Application Testing: Web application developers need to test websites and apps through multiple browsers and different configurations. Logging in with multiple identities helps them by emulating users and providing valuable feedback to help during product development and testing.
Corporate Intelligence: Companies can use multiple identities to reverse-engineer their competitor’s ads targeting strategy for valuable insights on their sales and marketing schemes.
Use Multiple Identities to Navigate the Web with Multilogin
We developed Multilogin to balance off the need for more effective methods that fight browser fingerprinting. Multilogin protects your identity from browser fingerprinting and other forms of web tracking while still allowing you to have a full browsing experience.
The beauty of Multilogin is that it takes into account all the parameters that web trackers use to fingerprint your devices. Then it creates unique values for each one of them to create numerous unique identities. You can choose which identity to use with some specific sites, keeping your real identity safe and maintaining full browsing functionality.
These unique identities can be tracked and fingerprinted individually, but they will not be linked with each other or your own real identity. Multilogin allows you to fool web trackers as they complete specific tasks, and navigate the web without diminished usability.
Final Thoughts…
With browser fingerprinting technology evolving at a fast pace, keeping your identity safe is more important than ever before. Use one of the approaches outlined above to prevent browser fingerprinting and safeguard your identity.

Frequently Asked Questions about fingerprint my browser

Can my browser be fingerprinted?

As browsers become increasingly entwined with the operating system, many unique details and preferences can be exposed through your browser. The sum total of these outputs can be used to render a unique “fingerprint” for tracking and identification purposes. Your browser fingerprint can reflect: the User agent header.

How do you beat browser fingerprinting?

Because of this, the only real way to combat browser fingerprinting is masking your IP address. These are disabling Javascript in the browser (meaning no add-ons and extensions), and any plugins that help websites identify you. Some browsers specialize in letting you navigate internet add-on free.May 9, 2017

Can I change my browser fingerprint?

You cant really manipulate the fingerprint by your own. Its recommend to use various Browsers that set you a completly new Fingerprint.

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